1.1 How has the human population grown?

For most of human history there have been relatively few people in the world. Figure 2 shows that only over the last 50 years have numbers really shot up, and that, at the turn of the century, the population reached over six billion.

Figure 2Author(s): The Open University

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3.3.2 Water pollution from coal mines

Most underground and some surface mines lie well below the water table. Both therefore have the potential to pollute any groundwater that flows through them. The root cause of the problem is the action of aerobic bacteria on pyrite (FeS2) within the coal sequence. This process releases metal and sulphate ions into solution, which in turn causes the acidity of the mine water to increase:

Author(s): The Open University

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時計台サロン「未来を創る北大農学の使命」の映像を公開しました。Podcast
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References

Huse, M. and Kuriyan, J. (2002) The conformational plasticity of protein kinases, Cell, 109, pp. 275–282.
Lipscomb, W. N., Reeke, G. N. Jr, Hartsuck, J. A., Quiocho, F. A. and Bethge, P. H. (1970) The structure of carboxypeptidase A. 8. Atomic interpretation at 0.2 nm resolution, a new study of the complex of glycyl-L-tyrosine with CPA, and mechanistic deduction
Author(s): The Open University

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2 High- to medium-enthalpy steam fields

When the geothermal gradient heats water above the temperature at which it boils at atmospheric pressure, at a depth accessible to drilling, conditions can favour using natural geothermal steam to generate electricity. Typically, the pressure can be several tens to hundreds of times that of the atmosphere. Even at 200 °C, high pressure can ensure that much of the fluid in a geothermally heated aquifer remains in the liquid state. Author(s): The Open University

6 Permeability

It is important to distinguish clearly between porosity and permeability. Porosity is a measure of how much water can be stored in a rock, whereas permeability is a measure of the properties of a rock which determine how easily water and other fluids can flow through it (see Section 4). Permeability depends on the extent to which p
Author(s): The Open University

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2.2 Winning coal in former times

Coal was probably first used as a fuel by early Chinese civilizations, and there is evidence for coal working in the UK since Roman times. However, early approaches to mining were limited by the available technology, and left much of the coal behind.

At first, coal was dug from seams exposed at the surface in shallow excavations into valley sides that followed the coal seam. The amount of coal that could be extracted from these trenches and from adits (short horizontal tunnels) w
Author(s): The Open University

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2 Odd one out

The image below shows models of four mammals:

  • Rhinoceros

  • Whale

  • Elephant

  • Hippopotamus

Figure 1
Author(s): The Open University

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7.5 Summary of Section 7

  1. Site-directed mutagenesis is an important technique for studying protein function. Using recombinant DNA technology, selected amino acids can be substituted with different residues to alter the structure and function of a protein. One widely used method employs primer extension. SDM studies can help identify residues that are critical for interactions or catalytic activity.

  2. Protein–protein interactions can be studied in a number of different
    Author(s): The Open University

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Sargassum Fish
The sargassum fish can camouflage itself to look exactly like a sargassum plant and ambush unsuspecting prey with deadly ease. See these fish in action as well as learn information about them. The video can be used with a lesson on animal defenses and adaptations, specifically camouflage, protective resemblance, and mimicry. Run time 01:42.
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RVC 25 - The Role of Mitochondria in Health and Disease
Mitochondria are cell organelles which play a critical role in energy supply in most higher organisms. But how did that role develop and how do they achieve this function? In the latest episode of the RVC Podcast Dr Michelangelo Campanella discusses these questions and relates his research findings on how poor mitochondrial function can contribute greatly to disease processes.
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5.9 Membrane filtration

Membrane filtration is a process whereby particles smaller than about 10−2 mm (which can pass through sand filters) are removed using synthetic polymeric membranes and a high pressure. The membrane effectively acts as a sieve.

It is increasingly becoming popular as an advanced treatment process for water (especially for removal of Cryptosporidium) and wastewater (where water reuse takes place), and various possibilities are:

  • <
    Author(s): The Open University

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7.340 Immune Evasion: How Sneaky Pathogens Avoid Host Surveillance (MIT)
Every infection consists of a battle between the invading pathogen and the resisting host. To be successful, a pathogen must escape the many defenses of the host immune system until it can replicate and spread to another host. A pathogen must prevent one of three stages of immune function: detection, activation, or effector function. Examples of disease-specific immune evasion and the mechanisms used by pathogens to prevail over their hosts' immune systems are discussed. Also considered is what
Author(s): Halme, Dina Gould

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

An Implementation Brief: Evaluation of an Android-based mHealth System for Population Surveillance i
By: Jamia Presented by Zeshan A. Rajput
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7.5 Summary of Section 7

  1. Site-directed mutagenesis is an important technique for studying protein function. Using recombinant DNA technology, selected amino acids can be substituted with different residues to alter the structure and function of a protein. One widely used method employs primer extension. SDM studies can help identify residues that are critical for interactions or catalytic activity.

  2. Protein–protein interactions can be studied in a number of different
    Author(s): The Open University

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Circulatory System Rap
This computer animated video is a circulatory system rap about the heart, sending blood to the lungs, and  arteries.  Lyrics are included on the screen.  (02:00)

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2.5 Wavelength

So far we have seen that sound is a pressure wave, and that the spacing of the pressure variations is related to the period of vibration of the source.

A graphical representation of the pressure wave from a tuning fork closely approximates to a certain type of wave known as a sine wave.

If we freeze the pressure wave as a snap shot in time, the variations in pressure with distance from the tuning fork can be plotted as a sine wave. The vertical axis is pressure so the crest
Author(s): The Open University

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1.1 Introduction

There are many environmental reasons why coal is a rather undesirable source of energy. Burning it introduces large amounts of gases into the atmosphere that harm the environment in a variety of ways, as well as other, solid waste products. Coal extraction leads to spoil heaps and mines that scar the landscape, land subsidence that affects roads and buildings, and in some cases water pollution.

With apparently so little going for it, why do we rely so much on coal to meet our energy nee
Author(s): The Open University

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Virtual yeast cell
This rich learning object is used to introduce yeast cytology to students taking Module D24BS3 Brewery Yeast Management as part of the MSc in Brewing Science. The virtual cell permits the students to understand structure and function of yeast organelles.
Author(s): Smart Katherine;Wang Steve

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Except for third party materials (materials owned by someone other than The University of Nottingham) and where otherwise indicated, the copyright in the content provided in this resource is owned by

Web Science from a multinational business perspective
Web Science from a multinational business perspective - JP Rangaswami
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