2.1 Degrees of torpor

Adaptive hypothermia occurs in at least six distantly related mammalian orders (Table 1) and in several orders of birds. There is a spectrum running from those species which can tolerate a drop in T b by 2° C for a few hours, to the seasonal deep hibernators which maintain a T b as low as 4° C for weeks on end.


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2.7.1 Recognizing geological problems

The most profitable coal mines are those that possess unbroken, horizontal seams of constant thickness and quality. In mines where this is not so, profit levels will depend on the ability of the mine geologist to predict changes in the seam before they are encountered at the face.

Geological problems fall into two categories — gradual changes and sudden changes. Where a change is gradual, such as a seam thinning or splitting, data from boreholes in advance of the workings, supplemente
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"Sliding Down to the End of the Alphabet" Song
"Sliding Down to the End of the Alphabet" is an upbeat rock and roll song that teaches the more difficult diagonals and the end of the alphabet.  This video shows a classroom of students singing along and dancing to this song as they practice writing letters such as v, w, x, y, and z using their bodies. (03:27)
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2.6 Underground mining

Coal extraction is of course less straightforward using underground mining techniques. The associated costs are higher, and these begin with the sinking of two shafts, an 'upcast' and a 'downcast' shaft for ventilation (Figure 22). Sinking these to a depth of a kilometre may take a few years and during this time,
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1.2 The formation of NHS trusts

Figure 2.6

2.3 A closer look at ethical issues

Science can define what is practicable, what can be done, but it cannot determine which developments it is right to pursue; this is largely an ethical judgement. One sensible approach in making an ethical assessment is to try to weigh up the benefits of a technology against its potential to do harm. Deciding whether GM technology is acceptable, in ethical terms, then involves a judgement about the plausibility and moral weight of competing sets of claims. Individuals may make widely different
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Model of the monoclinic ZrO2 unit cell
Rotating model of the monoclinic ZrO2 unit cell.
Author(s): DoITPoMS, University of Cambridge

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http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

1.1 Introduction

There are many environmental reasons why coal is a rather undesirable source of energy. Burning it introduces large amounts of gases into the atmosphere that harm the environment in a variety of ways, as well as other, solid waste products. Coal extraction leads to spoil heaps and mines that scar the landscape, land subsidence that affects roads and buildings, and in some cases water pollution.

With apparently so little going for it, why do we rely so much on coal to meet our energy nee
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Ernst Chain Prize and Lecture 2006 - The T cell-virus interface
Professor McMichael describes the T cell-virus interface and explains his influential contributions in the field of human immunology, particularly looking at viral infections and their interactions with T cells .
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Supporters of traditional marriage rally in Washington
Thousands who support traditional marriage gathered in front of the U.S. Capitol to march to the Supreme Court ahead of this week's hearing on gay marriage. Rough Cut (no reporter narration). Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financi
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時計台サロン「未来を創る北大農学の使命」の映像を公開しました。Podcast
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Introduction

The fascinating phenomenon of superconductivity and its potential applications have attracted the attention of scientists, engineers and businessmen. Intense research has taken place to discover new superconductors, to understand the physics that underlies the properties of superconductors, and to develop new applications for these materials. In this unit you will read about the history of superconductors, taking a brief look at their properties. You will also learn about modelling the proper
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"What Comes After" by Steve Watkins--The Pick of the Week from 60 second Recap®
In this video, teenage students will be introduced to "What Comes After" by Steve Watkins. Iris Wight has it rough. Her father's dead. Her best friend's family has decided they can't keep her. Alone and hurting, Iris ends up at horrible Aunt Sue's where her only solace is the goats ... and even those, Iris discovers, can be taken from her in an instant. The first half of "What Comes After" is a particularly tough read, but Iris is a compelling protagonist whose falling-apart life still has
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2.2 Winning coal in former times

Coal was probably first used as a fuel by early Chinese civilizations, and there is evidence for coal working in the UK since Roman times. However, early approaches to mining were limited by the available technology, and left much of the coal behind.

At first, coal was dug from seams exposed at the surface in shallow excavations into valley sides that followed the coal seam. The amount of coal that could be extracted from these trenches and from adits (short horizontal tunnels) w
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Introduction

There are many environmental reasons why coal is a rather undesirable source of energy. Burning it introduces large amounts of gases into the atmosphere that harm the enviironment in a variety of ways, as well as other, sollid waste products. Coal extraction leads to spoil heaps and mines that scar the landscape, land subsidence that affects roads and buildings, and in some cases water pollution.

With apparently so little going for it, why do we rely so much on coal to meet our energy n
Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

This unit provides an introduction to the evolution of mammals.

We will be considering Darwin's observations on a great many mammals, and how he noticed that species fell into natural groups. We take as an example the evolution of one particularly interesting mammal, the whale, and look at evidence both from fossils and from DNA to see which other mammals are most closely related to whales. We see how the evidence from these two very different sources points to the same relationship and
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RVC 25 - The Role of Mitochondria in Health and Disease
Mitochondria are cell organelles which play a critical role in energy supply in most higher organisms. But how did that role develop and how do they achieve this function? In the latest episode of the RVC Podcast Dr Michelangelo Campanella discusses these questions and relates his research findings on how poor mitochondrial function can contribute greatly to disease processes.
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

Grateful thanks is made to the pupils and staff of: The Henley College, Oxon; Langtree School, Wo
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6.2 The hypothalamus as central regulator

Research in the past 30–40 years has established that the hypothalamus, which lies below the thalamus and above the optic nerve chiasma and the pituitary gland in the brain, fulfils all of the functions listed above, at least in part. The main function of the hypothalamus is homeostasis. Factors such as blood pressure, body temperature, fluid and electrolyte balance, and body weight are held to constant values called the set-points. Although set-points can vary over time, from day to
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7.340 Immune Evasion: How Sneaky Pathogens Avoid Host Surveillance (MIT)
Every infection consists of a battle between the invading pathogen and the resisting host. To be successful, a pathogen must escape the many defenses of the host immune system until it can replicate and spread to another host. A pathogen must prevent one of three stages of immune function: detection, activation, or effector function. Examples of disease-specific immune evasion and the mechanisms used by pathogens to prevail over their hosts' immune systems are discussed. Also considered is what
Author(s): Halme, Dina Gould

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C