1 The importance of school governors

I wouldn't have accepted the job if I didn't think that the governors understood their role.

(A secondary headteacher)

In March 2004, the DfES stated that school governors represented one per cent of the adult population, and constitute the single biggest volunteer force nationally. However, doing the job voluntarily does not mean that governors should aim to do it less than professionally!


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4 Effective governance

Effective teams have clear, agreed and common goals – their members must all be pulling in the same direction.

(Creese and Earley (1999))

The DfES, LAs and a number of authors have set out their own definitions of the elements that make a governing body effective. They have generally included the following:

  • having a sound knowledge of the school;


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2.4 Clerk

The governing body must appoint a Clerk, who should not be a member of the governing body. It is also advisable not to use a member of staff, if possible, to avoid any potential conflict of interest. While some governing bodies use their Clerk solely as a minute taker, the prime function of the Clerk is to convene meetings and perform all the administrative tasks required. Good clerking requires specialist skills, and the governing body will probably want to reflect this in an adequate level
Author(s): The Open University

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2.3 Disability-related terminology

You may already be aware that the influence of the social model of disability has resulted in a change in the terminology used in relation to disability. Some terms are discouraged because they reflect the medical model's view that the ‘problems’ associated with disability stem from functional limitations. This can lead to hesitation when discussing disability for fear of causing offence. The preferred terms reflect the view of the social model that it is society that disables people with
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1.3 Disability facts and figures

There are many sources on the web that have disability statistics. We found the following at CSR Europe.

  • The International Labour Organisation estimates that there are 610 million disabled people worldwide.

  • Four hundred million disabled people live in the world's developing countries

  • Disability is estimated to affect 10 per cent to 20 per cent of every country's population, a percentage that is expected to grow becaus
    Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

Why are schools in the UK run by school governors? This unit will examine how the role has developed and the main tasks and responsibilities that exist today. We will also look at the need for self-evaluation and how the setting of a clear strategic direction can help governors achieve the required targets.


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1.6. Listening, reading and language assimilation

One assumption that is widely held as axiomatic is that people learn by doing … We seem to have deduced that people learn to speak by speaking and so on. In reality one simply drowns by attempting to swim without some sort of prior preparation and theoretical instruction. Obviously the art of speaking can be improved by practice but the skill of speaking is learnt primarily in a vast complex of other ways. It might be su
Author(s): The Open University

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5.1 Introduction

Creativity should not be considered a separate mental faculty but a characteristic of our way of thinking, knowing and making choices. Creativity seems to emerge from multiple experiences, coupled with a well-supported development of personal resources, including a sense of freedom to venture beyond the unknown. The most favourable situation for creativity seems to be interpersonal exchange, with negotiation conflicts and co
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3 A diversity of views

Another vital strategy for survival (or for the justification of survival) is for geography teachers to teach well. Given the wealth and range of lively material available to geography teachers and the richness of life in the real world, it ought to be rare for a geography teacher not to be able to interest or stimulate students in some part of the subject on its own merits

(Walford, 2001, p. 238)

<
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1.2.1 Stating essential conditions

These structures are used to show conditions that are essential.

Must + infinitive

The location must have good road communications.

Must not + infinitive

It must not be more than two hours by lorry from London.

Have to + infinitive

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2.2.4 Getting about

Saying how to get about

Earlier (Session 1) you met the expression:

  • à pied on foot

Other ways of saying how people get about include:

  • à bicyclette by bicycle


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3.10 Working with difference

If ‘racial’ or ethnic differences are produced as part of a process that ‘racialises’ certain groups as ‘other’, how should services respond to the issue of difference? What practical steps can service providers take to ensure all members of the population, whatever their assumed ethnicity, have equal access to services and can participate fully?

Lena Robinson is a psychologist and social work educator who has written extensively on issues of cross-cultural communication for
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1.3.2 Recurrent themes

When the accounts of people who have described a near-death experience are looked at side by side it is possible to identify some common features. This isn’t to say that all of these features are present in every account, but that amidst variations there are certainly recurrent themes. The following list is compiled from a variety of studies, including the important study undertaken by Sabom (1982), himself initially sceptical.


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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The material acknowledged below contains Proprietary content which is used under licence (not subject to C
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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary and.is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence  See Terms and Conditions.


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5.6 A few final thoughts

You will have seen from this section that it is difficult to talk about the heart without also talking about blood and veins and arteries. It is hard to isolate one body system or one body part and describe it by itself, without talking about other parts of the body as well. One of the important points that we would like you to remember about the biology of the human body is that everything is interlinked. An athlete hoping to maximise their performance in a sport has to work on all pa
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2 Social work skills: empowerment and advocacy

Qualified social workers are expected to have the necessary skills to empower service users to participate in assessments and decision making and also to ensure that service users have access to advocacy services if they are unable to represent their own views. The requirement for these skills can be found in the key role ‘Support, representation and advocacy’. Both empowerment and advocacy are concerned with power and the ways in which it is distributed between people. Empowerment and ad
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1.6.2 Treating alcohol-related liver disorders

Although considerable progress has been made in the treatment of many other chronic medical conditions, scant progress has been made in the treatment of cirrhosis. In over 8000 people admitted to hospitals in the Oxford region of the UK with liver cirrhosis during a 30-year observation period, 34 per cent had died one year after their admission and this death rate remained more or less constant (Roberts et al., 2005).

The largely pessimistic view of the failure of treatment of liver dam
Author(s): The Open University

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2.4.3 Ethics and accountability

Ethics is one aspect of values. One way of understanding ethics is in terms of the resolution of professional moral dilemmas. Social workers frequently play an important part in resolving such moral dilemmas, for example when making decisions involving risk, protection and restriction of liberty. The way in which you act in these situations should be guided by something beyond your personal beliefs alone. You have to be aware of the publicly stated values of your agency and make skilful judge
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2.3.2 Responsibility for the causes of ill health

Doyal and Pennell (1979) write from the perspective of political economy and argue that there is a continual state of conflict hidden within health experiences and health care relationships. Society produces ill health through an unrelenting drive towards profit and a failure to put the health and wellbeing of individuals first. Work and everyday social life are bound up with taking risks. Many workers experience stress and some occupations involve the risk of physical injury. Social class gr
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