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3.8 Glucagon

Glucagon is another hormone produced by the pancreas.

Question: Can you recall which cells make glucagon?

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3.5 Muscle

There are different sorts of muscle in the body and they have different functions. Skeletal muscles are the muscles that, for example, are used for movement in your arms and legs.

Skeletal muscles store glucose as glycogen (Figure 4) and are able to use glucose as a fuel. Insulin stimulates muscles to take up glucose, and w
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1 Defining diabetes

This unit introduces the parts of the body and processes involved in the development of diabetes. Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are similar but distinct conditions and, for doctors, it is not always easy to decide which type of diabetes someone has. Does this matter, and is one type of diabetes worse than the other? There are many misconceptions about diabetes among health care professionals and the population in general. We hope this unit will help you to explore and clarify your ideas about di
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Introduction

This unit introduces parts of the body and processes involved in the development of diabetes.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Diabetes care (SK120) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this subject area.


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1.7.2 End-of-unit questions

Question 25

Table 8 shows the atmospheric pressure P in pascals (Pa) at various heights h above the Earth's surface. Plot a graph to give a visual representation of the data in the table. Be careful to label your axes co
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Acknowledgements

Video Materials

This extract is taken from S809 © 2005 The Open University.

All written material contained within this unit originated at the Open University.


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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence. This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

T
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9 Wildebeest migration

The skill of thinking in a scientific way is as much a part of being a scientist as is knowing facts – perhaps more so. In this series of units, you'll not only come across facts about particular techniques, such as radio transmitters and bat detectors, but also the tactics that scientists use to inves
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8.1 Introduction

You know by now that plants can synthesise all the complex molecules that make up their tissues and seeds from very simple molecules – water, carbon dioxide and minerals from the soil. Mammals, on the other hand, need to take in many complex molecules ready-made, and some foods do not contain the right amounts or the right mix of nutrients. They have evolved various strategies to overcome the shortfalls, some of which are described in this section.


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4.2 Digesting cellulose

Figure 3 in this section contains a lot of information and many terms that are probably new to you. Set aside the detail for the moment, read
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6 Reflection

If you are working through all the units in this series, you'll be aware that this unit has taken a somewhat different tack from earlier ones. I've used rodents to explore some fundamental biological principles that have a relevance far beyond this particular order. It is especially appropriate to talk about issues such as biological success in connection with rodents, given their very wide geographical distribution and the very large number of rodent species and individuals. You'll recall (f
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5.3 The effect of environment on reproductive behaviour

Activity 5

Review your reading of Section 4.2 on the family life of marmots (or re
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2.1.1 Accuracy

The way to ensure that equipment is accurate is to use a series of known standards against which to calibrate the equipment. Calibrating should be done at least each day and sometimes more frequently (such as before using the equipment to measure unknown samples). Many types of measuring equipment go through an automatic calibration when they are switched on, but others require the user to provide a series of known calibration standards.


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1.2.1 Study Note 1

Simple rules for dealing with orders of magnitude and decimal points in decimal numbers: values ten times bigger than the order of magnitude you are looking at go to the left, ten times smaller go to the right, and less than 1 to the right of the decimal point.

Note: in many European countries, a comma is used instead of a decimal point. For instance in France and Germany two and a half (in other words 2.5) can be written as 2,5. This is important to bear in mind, for example, if
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1 Overview

As you walk down the street one day, you hear a voice from somewhere behind you that seems to be discussing this unit. It says:

‘My dad's tutor's no joker, and he told me the TMA's going to hit home with a bang.’

You turn to find the face behind the voice, which is a gravelly Glaswegian baritone, but the man has gone, leaving you to ponder what he has said. Let us call his sentence exam
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12.5 Localisation of sound in the vertical plane

Much of our ability to localise sound in the vertical plane is due to the shape of the outer ear, in particular the pinna. The pinnae provide a monaural cue to localisation. The bumps and ridges on the pinnae produce reflections, and delays between the direct path and the reflected path make vertical localisation possible. Vertical localisation is seriously impaired if the convolutions of the pinnae are covered.


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11.2 Frequency discrimination

Some findings indicate that, for moderate loudness levels, humans can detect a frequency change of about 1 to 3 Hz for frequencies up to about 1000 Hz. Figure 37 shows a plot of the smallest frequency difference for which two tones can be discriminated for a number of reference tones. You can see from the figure that up to about 1000 Hz, the D
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8.1 Introduction

We have learned so far that physical energy from the environment is transduced into electrochemical messages that affect the nervous system and give rise to psychological experiences, that is, produce sensations and perceptions. Sensation refers to the initial process of detecting and encoding environmental energy. The first step in sensing the world is performed by receptor cells, which in the case of hearing are the hair cells in the cochlea. Perception on the other hand, generally refers t
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5.6 The importance of size and habitat

The use of hibernation to gain energetic advantage must be weighed against a number of considerations, particularly animal size and behaviour, biogeographic distribution and habitat. Small animals, which can carry less fat and have a higher surface area to volume ratio and BMR, are more likely to lose energy as heat and in maintaining life functions if they do not use hypothermic strategies in winter. Few hibernating mammals have a total body mass greater than 5 kg. Indeed, in large animals t
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3.7 Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Activity 14

What is the condition that results from vitamin C deficiency and what are its symptoms?

Answer

You will probably remember from the start of this
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