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2.1.1 Should you stop reading to look words up?

It depends. Looking up words slows you down, and you may be able to make reasonable sense of their context without having to. For example, I found it fairly easy to guess the meaning of ‘habituation’ in paragraph 8, from the way it was discussed. However, I looked it up on the internet anyway, as I happened to have my computer on. I also looked up ‘real income’ and ‘marginal tax’ and found useful clarification of their meanings.

You have to decide how important a word seems
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1 The experience of reading

The best way to develop your understanding of the reading process is to follow the principles of the Kolb learning cycle, by doing some reading and then reflecting on your experience. To this end, Activity 1 asks you to read an extract from an article by Richard Layard (2003) titled ‘The secrets of happiness’ which appeared in the New Statesman. To keep the task manageable I have reduced the article to half its original length and, for ease of reference, paragraph num
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course you should be able to:

  • ask questions to encourage analysis of personal reading material

  • think about what the key concepts and issues are

  • detach from disagreements with the author's views.


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1 Communication

The basis of good communication seems very simple, it is speaking or writing clearly such that any message you (the sender) intend to send to someone else (the receiver) is exactly the one which they receive. This means that as well as the detailed content of the message, we have to give some thought to the language we use e.g. ask ourselves if the receiving person might misunderstand any words or phrases we use. We must also be aware of the way we deliver the message –
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • reflect on the reasons for needing to improve skills in using charts, graphs and tables

  • understand the following mathematical concepts and how to use them, through instruction, worked examples and practice activities: reflecting on mathematics; tables; line graphs; bar charts and histograms; pie charts; analysis

  • draw on a technical glossary, plus a a list of references to further reading and sources
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7 Further reading and sources of help

Where to get more help with using and interpreting tables, graphs, percentages, and with other aspects of numerical work.


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Conclusion

We have now looked at a number of different graphs and charts, all of which were potentially misleading. We hope that from now on if you have to work with a graph or a chart, you will always consider the following points:

  • look carefully at any horizontal or vertical scale that is given;

  • consider each graph or chart separately, don't compare them unless you are sure that they have the same scales;

  • if it is not easy to
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4.8.3 Mode

The mode, or modal value, is the most popular value in a set of numbers, the one that occurs most often. However, it is not always possible to give the mode as some sets of values do not have a single value that occurs more than each of the others. Like the median, the mode can help us to get a better feel for the set of values. Retailers find the mode useful when they want to know which item to restock first.

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4.8.2 Median

The median is the middle value of a set of numbers arranged in ascending (or descending) order. If the set has an even number of values then the median is the mean of the two middle numbers. For example:

1, 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 24This set of nine values is arranged in ascending order and the median is 8.
32, 25
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4.8.1 Mean

The mean is found by adding up all the values in a set of numbers and dividing by the total number of values in the set. This is what is usually meant by the word ‘average’.

For example, if a company tests a sample of the batteries it manufactures to determine the lifetime of each battery, the mean result would be appropriate as a measure of the possible lifetime any of the batteries and could be used to promote the product.

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Critical Social Psychology
We live in a complex, fast changing and highly social world. One of the most compelling questions we face is how to understand ourselves and other people. The video tracks on this album introduce the four main theoretical perspectives in social psychology - cognitive, psychoanalytical, discursive and phenomenological. The album also explores interrogative themes that help in the understanding of key topics in social psychology. This material forms part of The Open University course DD307 Soci
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

2.3 A brief look at different kinds of data

For a long time there has been a very important argument about what are the ‘legitimate data’ of psychology – what can and should be used as evidence. We have already seen that, from the very beginnings of psychology as a formal discipline, psychologists have used experimental methods, observations and introspection. In one form or another these methods continue to be central to psychology. The experimental method, adapted from traditional science, has most consistently been considered
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1.2 Psychology has wide appeal

Some people will be doing this psychology course to consolidate earlier study and experience and to build a career. Others will be quite new to psychology as a formal research-based discipline. Some will have been stimulated to study a course in psychology by the well-publicised examples of research findings or psychologists at work that are presented in the media. Some will be coming to this course because of experiences in their own personal lives. This may be because they have been touched
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • describe the diversity of psychology as a discipline

  • list some of the ways psychologists focus on different aspects of human behaviour

  • identify different methods psychologists use to explore human behaviour

  • illustrate the importance of ethical considerations.


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4 Encouraging physical activity

The proportion of children who were active for 60 or more minutes in 7 days in the last week was calculated. Overall, a higher proportion of boys than girls achieved the recommended levels – 70% of boys compared with 61% of girls. Among boys, the proportion active for at least 60 minutes on 7 days did not vary markedly with age. In contrast, levels of physical activity among girls declined from about age 11.

(Source:
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Round 2: Acronyms

Define the acronyms

Question 1

What do the followi
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References

Anderson, D (1997) V&A Museum, A Common Wealth: Museums in the Learning Age. A Report to the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
Osborne, K. (2004) Exeter Museums Service, at the MLA site Inspiring Learning for All, www.inspiringlearningforall.gov.uk [accessed 23 August 2004].
Inspiring Learning for All (2004) Quotation from a teacher from the London Museums Hub Focus Gro
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3.2 The Every Child Matters agenda

The government's vision for extended schools builds on the Every Child Matters (ECM) initiative. Click on the following links for more information Every Child Matters: Change for children in schools [accessed 26 January 2007]. It is founded on five outcomes:

  • Be healthy.

  • Be safe.

  • Enjoy and achieve.

  • Make a positive contribution (as a citizen).

  • Be employable.

In moving t
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1 A revolution in schools

The school we are in today will not be the school we are in tomorrow. This is especially apparent when the government's Extended Schools and Every Child Matters agendas for English schools are added to the mix, together with remodelling and the changes to the 14 – 19 phase. For details of the bursar's key role in this process visit Bursar's role in remodelling [accessed 26 January 2007].

Admittedly, there is no ‘one size fits all’ business manager (or bursar) role. The position a
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