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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Course image: fdecomite in Flickr made available under Creati
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6 Conclusion

At the beginning of this course we recalled four views of development. The ‘grand theories’ reviewed here can be seen to capture elements of those views:

  • development as discipline – behaviourism;

  • development as experience – social learning theory;

  • development as ‘natural stages’ – constructivism;

  • development as interaction – social constructivism.

However, these theories have
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Lab, Camera, Action: Transit of Venus
In June of 2012, one of the rarest predictable astronomical phenomena took place: Venus passed directly in front of the Sun, as seen from Earth. For more information, visit transitofvenus.org. As part of the Lab, Camera, Action! series, Dr Andrew Steele explores the science behind one of the rarest predictable astronomical phenomena of 2012: the Transit of Venus. Venus transit 2004 images courtesy of Dan Kiselman, Institute for Solar Physics and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Planet textu
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Money talks: Rise of the No Men

Since the financial crisis, compliance officers in charge of minimising banks’ regulatory woes have never been more in demand. Will banks reach peak compliance? Also, author Caroline Criado Perez exposes what she calls “data bias in a world designed for men”. Also, after Avengers: Endgame broke box office records, will Disney Hulk smash the streaming competition later this year? Philip Coggan hosts


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1.3 Summary

  • Modern sport and the media are closely linked in a variety of ways.

  • One area of connection is through big events and sports celebrities.

  • The media also provide routine coverage, scores, results, venue and scheduling details and everyday information, often at speed; for example, through the internet, and satellite and mobile phone technologies.

  • This type of coverage is illustrated by the example of English p
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6.1 Legitimating the powerful

The labelling perspective associated with Berger and Luckmann focuses on the processes by which some behaviours and types of people become marked out for social disapproval – targeted by the wider society as different and requiring some form of social response. Its virtue is that it challenges conventional assumptions that social problems exist ‘out there’ as obvious and commonly understood facts. Berger and Luckmann's perspective stresses the importance of language in shaping how we de
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6.6 Inheritance

When several different classes that support the same protocol are implemented, there could be a lot of repetitive coding. Rather than duplicate code in different classes, most object-oriented systems allow for the sharing of the implementation of operations, by mechanism called inheritance. Using inheritance, one class can be defined as basically similar to another, and just the ways in which they differ can be implemented. Indeed, in the early days of object-oriented design, the use o
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6.2 Objects

To represent a thing such as an account or a payment from an object perspective, the software developers need to say how it can be used. An account is something that can be credited or debited with amounts of money and that remembers the total balance between operations. As users of an account, we do not care whether the balance is represented by electrons or by numbers on a slate, or whether the numbers are represented in binary or decimal. As long as we can withdraw money at some time after
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6.1 Modularity and the object-oriented approach

In the previous sections we discussed software development processes and the role of modelling. In this section you will meet the main object concepts. Object-oriented programming preceded object-oriented development by many years, and it is where the object concepts originate. Once we have explained these concepts, we shall revisit software development and modelling in object terms.

One of the great successes of software engineering over the past 50 years has been the introduction of m
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5.2 Modelling techniques and language

Models are built using techniques. A technique is a tool to describe a particular way of viewing and understanding a system. It guides the creation of a model and defines the notation used to create it. This can be narrative or diagrams or even mathematics. Techniques deal with the complexity of a system, abstracting essential aspects and representing them as models.

A modelling language defines the notations used for many different techniques. The Unified Modeling Languag
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5.1 Domain, specification and design modelling

Building quality software is often a complex and lengthy task. Software developers build models that represent what is important, devoid of unnecessary detail. These models help them to deal with the complexity and to understand what is being developed.

This is not unlike other forms of design. For instance, when an architect develops model of a house as a set of drawings they will probably show where the walls and windows are and their relative sizes, but not any details about t
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4 Emergent approaches to software development

Iterative and incremental methods have been widely adopted in software development. Nowadays, high competitiveness, reduced time-to-market and pressure to develop flexible enterprise software together with the rapid change of technology have led to the emergence of new approaches to building, deploying and maintaining software. At the time of writing (2005), several new approaches to software development have been established that may become significant during the lifetime of this course. The
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3 The Unified Process

The Unified Process (UP) (Jacobson et al., 1999) has emerged as a popular iterative and incremental development process for building enterprise systems based on an object-oriented approach. It promotes a set of best practices, namely that development should be organised in short time-boxed iterations, and that it should be adaptive to accommodate inevitable change.

Time boxing means that a (usually) short fixed period of time is devoted to each iteration, e.g. three to fo
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2.3 Risk management

No software development is free from risk, and one crucial activity of development is identifying and managing it. Managing risks requires an early identification of any threats to the development or operation of a system, and then monitoring these threats during development. In an iterative and incremental development, risks in the development stage can be tightly monitored and controlled. The emphasis on short cycles that lead to early implementation helps to address technological problems
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2.2 From waterfall to iterative development

Historically, the first widely adopted software development process was the waterfall development process (or simply, waterfall).

The waterfall process relies on the definition of sequential phases, as shown in Figure 1. Each phase starts only after the previous one has finished; all the analysis
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Conclusion

If you are working through all the units in this series, you'll be aware that this course has taken a somewhat different tack from earlier ones. I've used rodents to explore some fundamental biological principles that have a relevance far beyond this particular order. It is especially appropriate to talk about issues such as biological success in connection with rodents, given their very wide geographical distribution and the very large number of rodent species and individuals. You'll recall
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5.3 The effect of environment on reproductive behaviour

Activity 5

Review your reading of Section 4.2 on the family lif
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When it doesn't make sense …

Why were you asked to try to understand some mathematics which was not clearly written? There will be times (hopefully not too many!) in the course of your mathematical studies when you will not immediately be able to follow a mathematical argument. In such circumstances it is very easy for your mind to boggle at the complexity of it all and to give up, feeling that you cannot understand any of it.

In Activity 8 you were asked to ‘make a note of the point when it becomes very difficul
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Does it make sense?

Example 3

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