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Robots with emotions - do we need them?
Dr Joanna Bryson, an expert in machines that have their own artificial intelligence, explores the issues associated with the concept.
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Protecting architectural world heritage from earthquakes
Dr Dina D'Ayala discusses the fundamental concepts of earthquake engineering and recent research developments in the field of earthquake protection.
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Presidents & American foreign policy
Are trends in global politics simply the result of large impersonal structural forces, or does human agency matter? For example, would America have become the dominant country in the 20th century regardless of who was president? To what extent did leaders matter, and if so, what kind of leader? Leadership theorists focus their attention on what they call transformational leaders, but were "transformational" leaders like Woodrow Wilson and Ronald Reagan really more important than "transactional"
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2.4 Use of punishment: spare the rod?

One issue, about which there is regular debate, concerns the use of ‘punishment’ to control children's behaviour. Behaviourism might, at first glance, appear to offer support for using punishment to reduce undesirable behaviour. For example, imagine that a father and his daughter are out shopping and the child steals a bar of chocolate and eats some of it whilst her father is distracted. He then sees her and shouts at her. In operant terms the stealing event is followed by an aversive res
Author(s): The Open University

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2.6 Evaluating behaviourism

As the previous section indicates, although ‘classic’ behaviourism is rare in contemporary explanations of child development, many of its guiding principles have been retained in some form or other in the field of learning difficulties. One of the advantages of behaviourism lies in its utility as a form of direct communication with children who are too young to speak, or who are otherwise difficult to communicate with about their behaviour. It resulted in decades of research, becoming the
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to choose from on a range of subjects. 

Find out more
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Babbage: Frosty organs and doped-up horses
A charity in America rallies transplant-organ preservation scientists, and researchers in Hong Kong think they've found a way to detect doping in racehorses
Author(s): The Economist

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Rights not set

2.3 Wales

In 1282, Edward I conquered Wales and the Statute of Rhuddlan (or Statute of Wales, 1284) established English rule. Rather than involve the assimilation of the Welsh by the English the conquest saw ‘a colonial system … established in those parts of Llywelyn's Principality which were by 1284 in the hands of the king’ (Davies, 1991, p. 166). In 1400, Owain Glyndwr led the most outstanding and successful rising in Wales against the new order and the tyranny of the English border barons, wh
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2.2 The purpose of this activity

For these short video extracts we have chosen to focus on two main viewpoints. Try not to look beyond the outline of the debate, for we are not expecting you to come to a conclusion about who is right and who is wrong – the issues are far too intricate for that. All you need to do is to recognise what the issues are and to be able to identify what arguments each side puts forward in support of its case.

The key skill being developed is identifying the arguments used by various individ
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1.2 Offshore fragments of industry

The rise of global factories in the 1970s owed much to the rapid improvement in transport and communications technologies which took place at that time and which made it possible to keep in touch with, and control, production processes in different parts of the world. Just as significant was the fragmentation of industrial production whereby parts of the manufacturing process could be relocated over vast distances. Sewing in garment and footwear production, for instance, was among the
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Hepworth - Construction (Crucifixion) DP173290

*

Construction (Crucifixion) (1966) by Barbara Hepworth, Winchester Cathedral, Dome Alley, Winchester, Hampshire. Detail view from the south. Photographed by Steven Baker 2015.
© Historic England


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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce materia
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1.6.3 Mailing lists and newsgroups

Mailing or discussion lists are e-mail based discussion groups. When you send an e-mail to a mailing list address, it is sent automatically to all the other members of the list.

The majority of academic-related mailing lists in the UK are maintained by JISCMail You will find details of joining these mailing lists on the JISCMail website. Mailing lists are useful for getting in
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6.2.11 Dynamic pricing

The dynamic pricing model is one which has a number of different instantiations. Basically, such models treat the price of a product or service (primarily a product) as variable and open to negotiation.

The name-your-price instantiation of this model is where the customer of a site offers the price that he or she thinks is reasonable for a product or service. The administrator of the website will pass on this bid to the provider of the product or service who will decide whether t
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Environment & Development. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and Author(s): The Open University

6.4 Athletes and oxygen intake

In Section 4.4, we ranked a group of athletes in terms of heart rate. Now let us consider the same athletes in the same sports, but from the point of view of how efficient their respiratory system needs to be to perform in their chosen sports.


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5.1 Introduction

Elite athletes are aware of the importance of heart performance and blood flow and many have specific training programmes to increase the strength and efficiency of the heart. This is not, however, just something that impacts on elite athletes. Even those of us engaged in sport at an amateur level or just for recreation will have experienced the effect of sport on the heart. After intense physical activity our heart pounds and possibly our head pounds too from the blood that is being pumped t
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Power Pose
Power Pose

00:01:23
© 2000–2016 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved.

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