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2.5 Other aspects of writing

Now we will look at the way Philip and Hansa wrote and presented their essays. Did you find them both easy to read? As regards Philip's, my answer is, ‘yes and no’. It is sometimes easy because he has a fluent way with words. But it is often difficult because he does not use enough punctuation to help us make sense of his words, and because of certain mistakes he makes. I found Hansa's essay easier to read. Her writing is more technically correct and more assured than Philip's. But
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1.3.7 Summary

  • We can learn to use writing of all sorts as evidence by practising how to interpret it and by becoming aware of the conventions attached to its primary purpose for example as personal testimony, journalism, commercially produced material, such as market research and academic writing as well as material produced specifically through research such as interview data.

  • When approaching a piece of writing:

     

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1.3.4 Stage 2: Find a way in

Bearing in mind your analysis of the overt purpose of the piece of writing, whether it is explicitly social science or art, politics, entertainment etc., try to establish its basic point, its most obvious message. What is the title or headline; is it clear and ‘factual’, does it refer to some previous debate or require some sort of previous knowledge? Are there sub-headings and can you get an idea of how the ‘story’ goes from them? Skim read the introduction and the conclusion. Can yo
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Introduction

Social scientists collect evidence to support their claims and theories in different ways. Such evidence is crucial to the practice of social science and to the production of social scientific knowledge.

You may be aware of the idea of active reading, which is about reading with the aim of understanding and grasping something: a definition, an argument, a piece of evidence. What that suggests is that active reading is about reading and thinking at the same time. In
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • recognise some of the skills which are particularly associated with the way social scientists work;

  • describe some basic techniques relating to reading, for example, highlighting, note-taking and the processing;

  • write in your own words using references and quoting sources.


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Introduction

This unit is about the very basic study skills of reading and taking notes. You will be asked to think about how you currently read and then be introduced to a some techniques that may help you to alter the way you read according to the material you are studying. In the second section you will be asked to look at some useful techniques for note taking and how you may apply them to the notes you make.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Introducing the soc
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References

Ashworth, P. (2003) ‘An approach to phenomenological psychology: the contingencies of the lifeworld’, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 145–56.
Bordo, S. (1993) Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture and the Body, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.
Burkitt, I. (1999) Bodies of Thought: Embodiment, Identity and
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3.2 Consciousness of the body

Phenomenological theorists distinguish between the subjective body (as lived and experienced) and the objective body (as observed and scientifically investigated). These are not two different bodies as such (phenomenologists pride themselves on overcoming dualisms!); rather they are different facets of our experience and consciousness.

The body-subject, or subjective body, is the body-as-it-is-lived. I do not simply possess a body; I am my body (Merleau-Ponty, 1962
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4.3 Attending across modalities

The preceding section raised the issue of attention operating (and to some extent failing) across two sensory modalities. By focusing on distraction we ignored the fact that sight and sound (and other senses) often convey mutually supporting information. A classic example is lip-reading. Although few of us would claim any lip-reading skills, it turns out that, particularly in noisy surroundings, we supplement our hearing considerably by watching lip movements. If attention is concerned with u
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1.5 Summary of Section 1

The auditory system is able to process sounds in such a way that, although several may be present simultaneously, it is possible to focus upon the message of interest. However, in experiments on auditory attention, there have been contradictory results concerning the fate of the unattended material:

  • The auditory system processes mixed sounds in such a way that it is possible to focus upon a single wanted message.

  • Unattended material a
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3.3.1 Multisensory teaching for students

Guyer et al. (1993) tested the effectiveness of the Wilson Reading System for improving spelling in higher education students with dyslexia. They compared this technique to a non-phonic approach that teaches visual memory techniques to help students to remember frequently misspelled words. A control group of students with dyslexia but who had specifically requested no intervention formed the control group. Both intervention groups were tutored in the given technique for two, one-hour sessions
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2.2.1 The phonological processing deficit

Recall Alexander Faludy's difficulties in learning to read and write, and the other behavioural characteristics associated with having dyslexia. You might have noticed that many features of dyslexia point to a difficulty with some aspects of memory. That is, people with dyslexia have difficulty with tasks that require short-term memory processing such as mental arithmetic, writing and learning new information. However, these tasks have an additional feature in common: they contain a phonologi
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1.5.1 Definition by exclusion

A person is ‘dyslexic’ if no alternative explanation can be offered for their reading and writing difficulties.

In the UK, interest in children who showed a specific lack of ability in literacy grew as all children became entitled to a basic education. For the first time there was an expectation that all adults should be literate. Initially, it was proposed that specific difficulties in learn
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • understand how to start SPSS;

  • define a variety of statistical variables;

  • enter basic data into SPSS;

  • carry out a statistical analysis that can test hypotheses.


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6 And action!

Getting the cameras rolling is just the beginning – there are endless possibilities you can explore.

As a visual medium, DV lends itself to the creative expression of ideas, feelings and information, but it is harder to define what constitutes creativity.

It's easy to equate a creative medium with a lack of constraints – an ‘anything goes’ attitude. In BECTA's pilot study, however, teachers reported that placing clear constraints on pupils’ coursework generated the best
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Acknowledgements

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Author

Sue Platt has been a school governor for 21 years, at both primary and secondary p
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Learning outcomes

The aim of this unit is to:

  • explain the nature and value of the governing body's monitoring role as part of school improvement;

  • familiarise governors with different forms of monitoring and demonstrate ways in which governors can undertake their role as critical friends of the school;

  • reflect upon the importance of sharing information between members of the governing body and school staff;

  • raise awareness of the importance of the evalu
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Learning outcomes

This unit will help you to:

  • understand ways in which the governing body can be more involved in the planning processes of the school;

  • become familiar with available school performance data;

  • develop your understanding of how performance data can be used to decide future priorities for school improvement;

  • become familiar with the process of agreeing SMART targets.


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2.2 Chair of Governors

The role of the Chair of Governors is particularly important, as it is the Chair who will provide leadership for the governing body. It can be a time-consuming job so, to prevent it from becoming too onerous, the Chair should encourage other members to become more involved.

An effective Chair can provide invaluable support for the school. A clear understanding of the role of the governing body, a positive and pro-active approach to the management of its responsibilities, and a good work
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Introduction

How does the board of governors of a school work? This unit looks at the roles of Chair of Governors, Vice-chair and Clerk to the board and examines how the workload can be shared between the members. The governing body should focus on the quality and delivery of education provided by the school, not on daily management.


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