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7.1 Payments received

Diane Mallett said she didn't get any payment, though she used to get Invalid Care Allowance (ICA) when her mother-in-law was alive. Her brother-in-law, Paul, only got the lower level of Disablility Living Allowance. Diane pointed out that, if he'd been assessed before she intervened, he might have got a higher amount. John Avery said that Mr Asghar got Attendance Allowance. He thought he wouldn't be able to get Invalid Care Allowance, as this would affect his benefits.

Enid Francis' so
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6 Audio clip 5: Alex Zinga

Figure 4: Alex Zinga

At the time of the intervi
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4 Audio clip 3: Enid Francis

Enid Francis lived in a modern residential area on the outskirts of Derby. She shared a house with her husband, Wally, and two grown-up sons, Mark and John. Her husband had had to give up work eighteen months before his retirement, because of a heart complaint. Their two sons, aged 35 and 32, were both autistic. Enid's day was organised around meeting their needs for care and support. On weekdays, they attended a day centre, which she would have to get them ready for. When they came home in t
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand that people who give and receive help and support depend on a mix of paid and unpaid sources.


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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Couse image: Val D'Aquila in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

The content acknowledg
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3.2 Clips 4 to 5

Clip 4

In this clip, we hear about the problems faced by those in the private rented sector, and find out about EAGA.

1 The Swansea Cyrenians

In this course, you will hear from four people who have been helped by a secular voluntary organisation offering support and assistance to the homeless.

The Swansea Cyrenians is one of several organisations that are in touch with homeless people in Swansea. Since 1973, it has been helping some of the most vulnerable people in society, including those who have suffered from homelessness. At the time of the recordings, in 1999, the organisation was running a number of schemes to he
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7 Moving to a positive paradigm

Aaron Antonovsky (1984) has called the emphasis on illness and disease the pathogenic paradigm and has stated that this disease-focused paradigm has dominated our healthcare system. He claims that there are five important consequences of this domination:

  1. ‘We have come to think dichotomously about people, classifying them as either healthy or diseased’ (p. 115). Those categorised as ‘healthy’ are normal, those categorised as non-healthy or ‘di
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject
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3.4 Type

To improve aerobic fitness the ACSM recommends exercise that employs large muscle groups, is rhythmic or dynamic, can be maintained continuously and is aerobic in nature (Garber et al., 2011). This type of exercise results in larger increases in aerobic fitness. Activities that would fit into this category include walking, running, swimming and cycling. This again depends upon the level of the individual and their goals and demands of their activity or sport.

Frequency, intensity, time
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3.20 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners: an effective complaints mechanism

Effective relationships require strong communication skills. A good therapeutic relationship allows users the space and security to air their dissatisfaction without recourse to an external body. However, not all users enjoy such open relationships with their practitioners and may prefer to end the relationship than voice a complaint. This is why it is crucial for professional bodies to have accessible and user-centred complaints mechanisms in place. Complaints panels must include a significa
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3.8 The centrality of consent

In the last 30 years there has been a strong move away from paternalism towards an emphasis on users' rights and involvement in the decision-making process. Nowadays, few users would accept treatment without knowing what it was or a health carer who withholds information about other treatment options. The importance of involving the user is exemplified by the need for practitioners to gain informed consent. This need to gain consent is enshrined in law, as well as being a central aspec
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3.4.2 CAM practitioners are more ethical than conventional doctors

Proponents of CAM argue that because it is safer and has fewer side effects than conventional medicine, CAM practitioners must be inherently more ethical than doctors. This is a false argument in several respects. While CAM is generally very safe compared with some powerful conventional remedies (a point acknowledged in para. 4.21 of the House of Lords Report, 2000), all therapies can cause harm in unskilled hands. Some side effects of CAM are potentially serious, particularly if there is a c
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1.7 Models of health care delivery: the biopsychosocial model

Activity 4: The biopsychosocial model

0 hours 30 minutes

Read the following description of the biopsychosocial model and make notes on the positive and negative implic
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1.5 Models of health care delivery

In the quest to understand health and illness behaviour, social and medical researchers have developed various models to explain the different forms of health care delivery. These models emerged because, in the mid-20th century, social researchers began to question not only the position of professions in western countries but also the relationship between professionals and users. Early explorations of the patient's role in health care suggested that it was fairly prescribed (Parsons, 1951), a
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1.2.2 Reviewing the research: how people understand ‘health’

Being a contested concept, ‘health’ is constantly being redefined and re-evaluated. Lay people do not necessarily accept biomedical definitions of health and illness uncritically. Instead they have a complex web of beliefs, constructs and understandings about health and illness. These inform people's health behaviour, including decisions about whether to self-manage, seek help within local or lay networks, or consult a health professional.

Some lay people regard health as the absenc
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1.1 Introduction

Since the Second World War, health has come to signify much more than an absence of physical disease for many people in western societies. Interest in health now includes concerns about food, the strength of social networks and the quality of the environment. The stresses of modern living are recognised as a serious health issue. Personal choices are positively or negatively charged, depending on whether they are ‘good for you’ or ‘bad for you’. Most newspapers and magazines publish n
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

Couse image: B
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1.7 The connection between definitions

You will have seen from these definitions that they are connected in a number of ways. For example, a commitment to working in partnership and to empowering service users also entails a commitment to anti-oppressive practice. It is important to be clear, however, that these values are not necessarily set out in legislation. For example, while you will find legislation preventing discrimination on the basis of race, sex or disability, you will not find similar legislation promoting anti-oppres
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1.5 Accountability

Social workers have to act within the law and can be called upon to justify their actions to courts and managers as well as to service users. The law can define a worker's accountability in some detail. Furthermore, service users have a right to complain. Social workers are also employees and thus can be called upon to justify their actions to their line management and agency; this will be outlined by their agency requirements.

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