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3.3 What were the fundamental human rights which required protection?

Earlier in this unit you explored why certain rights were considered to be basic human rights. These can be described as those rights of individuals or groups relating to human dignity and fundamental freedoms, which require legal protection from adverse interference by the state, where those rights derive from the fact of being human. Such rights can be traced back to two aspects of international law, namely customary international law and treaty law. The former derives from the customs adop
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Introduction

This unit considers the growth of human rights and humanitarian law before looking at the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in detail. It will also look at the position of human rights in the UK and the effect of the Human Rights Act 1998.

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Rules, rights and justice: an introduction to law (W100)


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7.1 Towards a constitution

The European treaties establishing the European Union:

  • create an institutional structure for decision making, and

  • set out the freedoms of the individuals and the limits of the decision-making powers over the citizens.

The treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was signed by the member states in October 2004. However, at the time of writing (2005), the process of ratification is in abeyance following the rejecti
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3.4 How does the EU operate?

The EU operates through institutions created in the treaties. These institutions can have decision-making powers, law-making powers or may act as part of a checking and consultation procedure.

The institutions include:

  1. The European Parliament (represents the people of the EU).

  2. The Council of the European Union (represents the member states of the EU).

  3. The European Commission (represents the interests of the EU).
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3.4 Did I make a rough estimate to act as a check?

When using a calculator many people have ‘blind faith’ in its capacity to provide the correct result.

Calculators invariably provide the co
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this Unit:

Ficure 2: Crown copyright
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2.8 Relationship symbols

There are also symbols that show the relationship between numbers or quantities. Two common ones are = and , but there are several other symbols of this type.

Symbols indicating relationships include:

  • = means ‘equals’;


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2.5.1 Try some yourself

1 How would you add the following words to the list:

 decimal, fraction, positive, negative.

For each one, give the mathematical meaning and an example of its use.

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Electric Eddy and the Return of the Prodigal Son
Eddy and Delta discover how energy inefficient a young student can be. But what would it takes to make him more environmentally aware? (02:13)

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China - Economic Miracle or Economic Timebomb?
The growth of China in recent years has been described as an economic miracle with Western companies and governments rushing to build partnerships with the new power in the East. The opening up of the Chinese market and the expansion of industry, technology and production within the country has, however, had a profound effect on the people of China, its political leaders and the rest of the world. This impact can be seen in the growing inequalities within China, the loss of jobs in the west a
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Erythemal Index 2000: Full Globe Loop
The Erythemal Index is a measure of ultraviolet radiation (UV) at ground level on the Earth. UV exists to the left of the visible spectrum and is divided into three components (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C). UV-B (290-320 wavelengths) is the most dangerous form of UV radiation that can reach ground level. Atmospheric ozone shields life at the surface from most of the harmful components of solar radiation. Chemical processes in the atmosphere can effect the level of protection provided by the ozone in the
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French Lesson - Dans la Ville (In the City), Part 9
Learn French by learning vocabulary words for buildings in the city. As the native French speaker recites the words, the words and the appropriate images appear. There is no English spoken. Each French phrase is spoken once. For beginning to intermediate learners. This video features a picture within the picture, so the viewer may want to open the video to 'full screen' to see the smaller image
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Digital Library Object - Graphics-oriented battlefield tracking systems: U.S. Army and Air Force int
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Introduction

Sixty-five million years ago, animal and plant life were very different from nowadays, but there were rat-sized placental mammals living successfully on the ground. They were insect eaters, i.e. insectivores, feeding on the vast numbers of insects and other invertebrates living in soil, leaf litter and low-lying vegetation. Insectivore means 'insect eater', and in this course we will explore the world of insect-eating mammals, classified together on the basis of a reasonably close evolutionar
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Studying mammals: Food for thought
Who were our ancestors? How are apes and humans related? And where does the extinct Homo erectus fit into the puzzle? In this free course, Studying mammals: Food for thought, we will examine culture, tool use and social structure in both apes and humans to gain an understanding of where we come from and why we behave as we do. This is the tenth course in the Studying mammals series.Author(s): Creator not set

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Introduction

In this , we describe the theory of evolution by natural selection as proposed by Charles Darwin in his book, first published in 1859, On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. We will look at natural selection as Darwin did, taking inheritance for granted, but ignoring the mechanisms underlying it.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 1 study in
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Introduction

This course is the first in a series of three on Animals at the extreme. It is concerned with the integration of behaviour anatomy, physiology and biochemistry in diverse vertebrates that live in deserts. Once you have completed this course, you will be all the more able to appreciate the linked courses that follow, Animals at the extreme: hibernation and torpor and Animals at the extreme: the polar environment. These courses build on and develop some of the science you w
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Introduction

This course is an introduction to chemistry concepts, using water as the main illustration. Much of the course is devoted to exploring the smallest water particle - a water molecule - what it is and how it gives rise to the particular properties of water. The course also explains powers of ten and scientific notation, which are a convenient way of expressing both very large and very small numbers. It is a good introduction to science.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 1 s
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Introduction

In this course, we will examine the biology of the impressive meat eaters (e.g. wolves, lions and cheetahs), focusing in part on the biological 'equipment' - slashing and gripping teeth, for example - and on the less obvious behavioural characteristics that have contributed to the undoubted success of these fearsome hunters. Many of the meat eaters live and hunt in groups, which raises intriguing questions about the advantages of group living and the types of social behaviour between individu
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Introduction

The plant predators, or herbivores, are a varied group, but they share certain characteristics. Many of them are large; among the smallest is the chevrotain (or mouse-deer) at about two kilograms weight, and the elephant is the largest, with a typical bull male weighing around six tonnes. In this course we'll be looking in more detail at some of the problems and consequences of adopting a plant-eating way of life. Leaves are a much less nutritious food than most kinds of animal material, so l
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