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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • relate the temperature of a solid to the mean kinetic energy of its atoms

  • use models for thermally induced effects that involve linear, exponential and step changes

  • use exponentials, logarithms and graphical methods to interpret data from a thermally activated process in terms of Arrhenius's law

  • identify the changes of phase taking place in a variety of critical phenomena


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5.3.1 Trait theories

Trait theories are based on the assumption that the determining factor in an effective leader is a set of personal characteristics. It is also assumed that the way to discover these characteristics is to study successful leaders and determine which characteristics they have in common. However, despite innumerable studies, only about 5 per cent of the characteristics identified in successful leaders have been found to be widely shared. Of these, three stand out as significant:

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Acknowledgements

Course image: Shever in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Pages 36–37: Edwa
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5.9.3 Nanofiltration

Nano is a prefix that means 10−9, i.e. very, very small. You may have come across nanotechnology. Nanofiltration is similar to reverse osmosis and employs membranes that are capable of physical sieving and diffusion-controlled transport. Nanofiltration systems operate at much lower pressures than reverse osmosis systems, but yield higher flow rates of permeate. The quality of the permeate is not as good as with reverse osmosis, with particles in the size range 0.0005–0.005 μm
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2.5 Air circulation

At this stage, air circulation enters and plays a dual role. Firstly, winds transmit moisture horizontally from one location to another. In this way, moisture derived from oceanic evaporation can be transported many miles to a land mass. Secondly, convective or vertical currents arising from unequal heating or cooling can transmit moisture upwards. When it cools, some of the water vapour condenses. It is from these currents that most precipitation develops.


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2.4 Condensation

As air rises it expands, owing to the decrease in pressure with height, and as it expands, in theory it cools at an average rate of 1°C for every 100 m of altitude. As the air cools, it becomes saturated with water vapour which condenses around small particles in the air. These particles may occur naturally, such as soil particles or salt particles residual to evaporation of sea spray, or they may be produced artificially during combustion. A measure of the necessary cooling to produce conde
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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4 Introduction to systems practice

This course teaches some aspects of systems thinking and practice. But what does it mean to be a systems practitioner, and is it different to being a manager? This section attempts to answer those questions.

First, I believe a good systems practitioner will be more competent at handling complex situations, more capable of managing their working and domestic lives, and more able to learn not only how to learn but also how to act more effectively by using systemic concepts and techniques.
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1.6 Building on strengths

Activity 1

A self-review exercise for your learning file

The aim of this activity is to encourage you to take a problem-solving approach to your own learning, and to be proactive. The first part asks you to refle
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1.4 Defining reflection

Reflection is both an academic concept and also a word in common use, combining ideas of thinking, musing, pondering and so on. This everyday meaning is a good basis from which to start: reflection is very much to do with thinking. However, one of the most important things about reflection is that it enables us to think about our own thinking – about what it is that we know or have experienced. Such reflection might be summed up in the phrase, 'the mind's conversation with itself'.

Wh
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Engineering. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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3.7 Aftermath

In the immediate aftermath of the disaster, it was vital to prevent any further collapses, especially on bridges of similar design. Two other bridges were built to a design similar to that of the Silver Bridge, one upstream at St Mary's, West Virginia and the other in Brazil at Florianopolis. The bridge upstream on the Ohio river, at St Mary's, was the focus of concern, and it was closed to traffic immediately after the disaster. The eye-bar design was actually quite widespread in other bridg
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand the common techniques underlying free verse and traditional forms of poetry

  • identify personal experiences that can be used when writing poems

  • understand the basic terminology and practical elements of poetry.


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Inuit Throat Singing
In many cultures, song is perhaps one of the most important traditions. What is extraordinary about the Inuit musical tradition is the way they create their songs - with notes originating from their throats. The song isn't interrupted even when a breath has to be taken. The 6 tracks in this album focus on Tanya Tagaq, who describes the amazing art of throat singing and how her heritage and culture, carried in her heart forever, has driven her to continue with this unique tradition. This mater
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World Archaeology
How do archaeologists investigate and understand ancient sites and civilisations? Interpreting archaeological evidence accurately and methodically is the key to obtaining a critical perspective on the development of the human race. This album provides an introduction to archaeology and its methodologies for excavation of sites that can be more than 12000 years old. Like piecing together a jigsaw puzzle but without a picture guide, archaeologists can establish how cities and civilisations develo
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Ethics in real life
Ethical standards play a key role in the conduct of individuals and societies. This audio album contains three tracks that examine the basics of ethical theory and practice. It features interviews with leading figures in the field of ethics and examines codes of ethics, corporate businesses and copyright infringement. This material is taken from The Open University course A181 Ethics in real life. Th
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Repatriation and returning remains
19th Century philosopher Jeremy Bentham allowed his body to be put on public display after he passed on but would you allow your body to be displayed after you die? The following video and audio collection examines specific cases in which the issue of display and ownership are raised and explores how museums have handled this question. Experts share reasons for their beliefs regarding repatriation and refer to specific examples on the topic of whether remains should be returned to their country
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Women Writers: Voices in Transition
In the last century which women writers have truly challenged the existing forms of literature? How did they make their voices heard using brand new techniques and styles? For centuries there have been women writers who have changed the face of literature, but we tend to talk of their lives and work in very certain terms. This series of video-slideshows reveals how writing and reputation are often forged in transition, uncertainty and change. In these 4 films we re-examine the lives, work and in
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Introduction

This course focuses on a detailed investigation into the archaelogy and history of a Roman North African city. You will watch the video sequence ‘Exploring Thugga’ and undertake activities identifying Roman and indigenous elements in the city. You then investigate Roman and indigenous cultural elements in the archaeology of Africa; here you will watch two brief video sequences on mosaics, continue your study of the ‘Exploring Thugga’ video, and view ‘Culture and identity in the hous
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Introduction

This course will concentrate on one of the most common forms of art history writing – a biographical monograph about a single artist's life and work. You will be focusing on the way that one author, Helen Langdon, has used biography in her book about one artist, Caravaggio. In order to get the most out of studying this course you will need access to a copy of this book (ISBN 071266582x)

You will look in detail at the methods she has used to approach her subject and the different kinds
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