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1 Thugga

The ancient city of Thugga is often known by its modern name, Dougga. In this course we will be using the ancient name, Thugga. We are going to start by watching a video sequence, taking occasional notes: it should form about an hour of study time. The next section follows on from the video and introduces further evidence from Thugga.

As you watch, think about how the city compares with other cities you have encountered. Look out for how the buildings and streets are arranged, for build
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1.5 The limits of memory

In unwritten music, a factor which places a constraint on the number of fixed elements – the degree of detail specified by any model – is memory. Whatever is fixed must be memorised; as a matter of necessity, therefore, performers in these traditions have evolved strategies which limit the load placed on their memories. Here is Nettl again:

Dividing music into elements, I hypothesise the need for some of these
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Strategic view of performance
Strategic management and planning are no longer the preserve of senior executives. This free course, Strategic view of performance, looks at three different approaches to strategy before analysing the direction that strategic management may take now that it has become an accumulation of small tactical decisions rather than a top-down process. If you are interested in how a business 'ticks', this course could provide some of the answers. Author(s): Creator not set

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Introduction

This course looks at the management of local knowledge-generating practices. You will explore the processes that link practices to global contexts and learn to identify the key dimensions of globalisation and explore the implications for knowing how to ‘do things’ in a variety of contexts. You will go on to compare the approaches to managing and organising, based on universally applicable principles, with context-specific rationalities and look at how viable interpretations of reality mig
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1.6 Evaluation matrices

When there are several courses of action, then one way of thinking clearly about the advantages and drawbacks of the different courses is to compile an evaluation matrix.

Box 1: Six steps to creating an evaluation matrix

  1. List the various opti
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1.4 Bar charts

A bar chart is another way of presenting data. It is designed to show frequency distribution, for example, the number of staff in each of four categories in an organisation. You could present the data given in Table 6 in a bar chart as shown in Author(s): The Open University

1.2 Time series line graphs

In time series line graphs, data are plotted or organised along a time dimension. Time series graphs are used for displaying data that show cyclical fluctuations or changes, such as growth, over time. Suppose that you wanted to present the data shown in Table 2 as a gra
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3.3 The importance of understanding motivation

Personal characteristics in Figure 1 combine both psychological and personal factors. Two important factors which drive behaviour are motivation and attitudes.

MacFadyen et al. (1998) (see Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • describe and explain the meaning and nature of social marketing

  • analyse social marketing problems and suggest ways of solving these

  • recognise the range of stakeholders involved in social marketing programmes and their role as target markets

  • assess the role of branding, social advertising and other communications in achieving behavioural change.


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2 Contribution and roles

Hilary Cremin et al. (2003), in their evaluation of the ways in which teachers and teaching assistants can work together in teams, suggest that, while there is enthusiasm for additional support, little attention is given to how this actually works in classrooms. It is true that learning support staff have been introduced into classrooms without clear research evidence that they can make a difference to children’s learning, but then life often moves faster than the supply of research evidenc
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2.3 The Meissner effect

The second defining characteristic of a superconducting material is much less obvious than its zero electrical resistance. It was over 20 years after the discovery of superconductivity that Meissner and Ochsenfeld published a paper describing this second characteristic. They discovered that when a magnetic field is applied to a sample of tin, say, in the superconducting state, the applied field is excluded, so that B = 0 throughout its interior. This property of the superconducting s
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References

Craig, S. and Jassim, H. (1995) People and Project Management for IT, Maidenhead, McGraw-Hill.
Elbeik, S. and Thomas, M. (1998) Project Skills, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.
Gulliver, F.B. (1987) ‘Post-project appraisals pay’, Harvard Business Review, March–April.
Sabbagh, K. (2000) Power into Art, Lo
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The closure meeting

The final meeting is a time for celebrating successful completion. It could have a similar format to the launch meeting, and involve many of the same people. It might include:

  • reviewing the outputs or outcomes;

  • confirming the arrangements for any follow-up work;

  • thanking the team, the sponsor(s) and the stakeholders for their support;

  • presenting the completion report for approval and sign-off.

<
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1.1 Formal handover

The outputs of a project should be defined at the planning stage, including any conditions that will be required for a smooth transfer. Each outcome should be formally handed over to the sponsor who should confirm their delivery (‘sign them off’) so that there is no dispute about whether outcomes have been completed.

A closure list is likely to have sections to include the following groups of tasks, but each project will have different features to consider. A list of suggested areas
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References

Frame, J.D. (1987) Managing Projects in Organizations: How to Make the Best Use of Time, Techniques and People, San Francisco, Jossey Bass.
Buzan, T. (1982) Use Your Head, London, Ariel Books.

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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you t
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Conclusion

The project brief is a summary of previous discussions and research. If there is earlier documentation, the project brief can refer to these documents and summarise the key points rather than repeat everything. For example, there may have been previous documentation outlining the business case for the project so that commitment could be gained in earlier stages of the decision-making process. Similarly, there may be documentation that outlines the background to the project and the reasons for
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8 A basis for action and the project brief

Once the initial discussions about the purpose and feasibility of the project have confirmed that the project is worth carrying out, it is essential to establish the basic agreement as a document. The document will provide the reference point for all future work on the project and will be the basis for all judgements about whether the project is finally successful or not. This document is sometimes called the terms of reference, but usually incorporates some additional information in the form
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7.2 Feasibility studies

For some projects, particularly large or innovative ones, it may be appropriate to carry out a feasibility study before beginning the detailed work of planning and implementation. Alternatively, or in addition, it may be possible or desirable to try out an idea on a small scale, as a pilot project, before the main project begins. It may also be appropriate to carry out a feasibility study when there are still a number of options that would all appear to offer appropriate solutions to t
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