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4.5 Deciding: problems of judgement

We are constantly bombarded by information. Simply walking though a room risks flooding us with more sensory information that we can possibly process. Stop for a moment and consider all the different things you can see, hear, smell, or feel.

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • have greater insight into decision-making processes

  • use that insight to make more effective decisions

  • possess a range of different perspectives on what counts as an ‘effective’ decision

  • be better equipped to understand and influence the decision-making processes of other individuals and groups

  • understand better how people perceive and decide about risk.


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1 Invention and innovation

The terms ‘invention’ and ‘innovation’ are sometimes used interchangeably, although the concepts are readily distinguished. As you will see here, it is helpful to make a distinction in the context of organisational analysis. First consider what you understand by the term invention.

A
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Becoming a critical social work practitioner
What does it take to become a critical practitioner in social work? This free course, Becoming a critical social work practitioner, will guide you through some important concepts. An understanding of 'critical perspectives' will help you take a positive and constructive approach to problems that arise in social work practice.
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1.11.1 Subject positions

In her analysis, Blackman is identifying a pattern in Diana's talk and relating it to other similar methods of self-representation found in our culture. It is worth thinking through this in more detail. One key claim of discourse researchers is that language positions people – discourse creates subject positions. What does this mean? To speak at all is to speak from a position (remember the discussion of footing in the previous section). Further than this, the positions or slots in c
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1.2 Discourse as social action

Consider this first transcribed extract from the interview. Note that the numbers in brackets refer to pauses and give the length of the pause in seconds, while (.) signifies a micro-pause too small to count and .hhh indicates an audible in-breath.

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand changing constructions of ‘refugees’ and ‘asylum seekers’ over the last century

  • Identify ways in which the study of refugees and asylum seekers raises profound questions about the basis and legitimacy of claims for ‘citizenship’

  • understand how the personal lives of refugees and asylum seekers have been shaped by social policy that constructs them as ‘other’


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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand what we mean by the entanglements of social welfare and crime control, by exploring the tensions and relations between ‘watching over’ and watching out for’

  • understand policy responses and their relevance to the course

  • identify different kinds of evidence – in particular, visual evidence and interview evidence

  • demonstrate a development of skills in ICT, including ho
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2.3 The impact of Katrina on New Orleans

Activity 1

Below are four extracts from different commentators reflecting on the impact of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans.

  • In what ways do they offer contrasting interpretatio
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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlik
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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1.3 Summary

  • Crime has multiple meanings. Those meanings are socially constructed. The most important differences in the meanings of crime occur between strictly legal definitions and those that relate crime to the breaking of other codes and conventions – normative definitions. These may be formal moral codes like religions, or more informal codes of socially-acceptable behaviour.

  • Both these ways of thinking about crime vary historically, across soci
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Conclusion

This free course, The body: a phenomenological psychological perspective, provided an introduction to studying sociology. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 3 study in Psychology: Author(s): The Open University

4.10 Nobody is saying anything

A conference can be quite a fragile thing. If no one says anything for a while, it becomes harder and harder to break the silence, and no one feels like being the first to contribute. There can be a downward spiral until the conference becomes completely dormant.

Someone needs to be brave and break the spiral as soon as they realise what is happening. Here are some suggestions for things you can do at this point:

  • Ask a question that prompts a re
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The benefits of conferencing

There are a number of reasons why you should put time and effort into conferencing:

  • You get support when you need it (in exchange for giving support to others).

  • You have a richer vein of experience to draw on, because you can pool examples, references and ideas.

  • A group can often produce better work than an individual. One person might put forward a thought or idea, often not completely formed or finished. Someone els
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2.6.1 Philip's essay

Strengths

  • a reasonable understanding of the general issues Ellis deals with

  • a good basic structure

  • some good sequences of argument

  • a promising feel for language

  • fluency of expression

Weaknesses

  • the wrong title and consequently a lack of focus

  • argument is loose-knit in places – some points are not relevant
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3.2 Consciousness of the body

Phenomenological theorists distinguish between the subjective body (as lived and experienced) and the objective body (as observed and scientifically investigated). These are not two different bodies as such (phenomenologists pride themselves on overcoming dualisms!); rather they are different facets of our experience and consciousness.

The body-subject, or subjective body, is the body-as-it-is-lived. I do not simply possess a body; I am my body (Merleau-Ponty, 1962
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of fundamental aspects of the theory and methodology underpinning phenomenological psychology

  • critique simplistic mind–body, individual–social and agency–structure dualisms and appreciate how the body, self and society are interconnected

  • describe how phenomenological psychologists conceptualise the body.


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Acknowledgements

This free course is an adapted extract from the course DSE212 Exploring psychology, which is currently out of presentation.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommer
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2.2.2 ‘Visual deficit’ hypotheses

Samuel Orton was one of the earliest and most influential researchers into dyslexia, although he used the term strephosymbolia – literally meaning ‘twisted symbols’. He noticed that children with specific reading difficulties often wrote letters back to front, confused letters such as ‘b’ and ‘d’, and would swap the position of letters within a word during spelling (e.g. ‘was’ might be written ‘saw’). From these and other observations, he suggested that their read
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