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Lord Rees: The World in 2050 and Beyond
In this IPR Public Lecture, Astronomer Royal, life peer and Cambridge scholar Lord Rees surveys the century ahead and the prospects it offers mankind. From AI and robotics to climate change and mass extinction, he makes the case that this is a time of great potential - for success as well as catastrophe. This IPR Public Lecture took place on 9 February 2017.
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PSYC 105 - Lecture 24 - 11/17/2010
PSYC 105 - Lecture 24
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2.2.2 Salinity, desiccation and biotic interactions on seashores

Tidal movements ensure that sea-shore habitats are, if not covered by seawater for part of each day, at least subject to spray-borne salt and wind. So, even well above the level of high tides, sea-shore organisms need to be more tolerant of salt than most terrestrial organisms. However, salinity (the concentration of salts dissolved in water) is not the only factor affecting sea-shore species. Seaweeds and shelled animals like limpets and barnacles are adapted to living in a highly saline mar
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2.2.1 Soil pH

pH (a measure of acidity or alkalinity) is an important environmental factor, particularly in soils. Soil is derived partly from accumulated decaying vegetation and partly from broken up fragments of the underlying rocks. Soil pH is determined by both these components and also by the water that fills the spaces between solid soil particles.

How might you expect the pH of soil overlying limestone (or chalk, which is a particular form of limestone) to compare with that of soil overlying s
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1.7.2 Interpretation of a geological exposure

We now want to make use of the observations obtained by sketching the exposure, and it is useful to start by briefly summarising the features seen. First of all, you probably noticed the large boulder in the foreground of Figure 16 (which has been attached below for ease of access). Where did this bou
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1.4.2 Sedimentary processes

Sedimentary grains are formed when the rocks at the Earth's surface are slowly broken up physically by exposure to wind and frost, and decomposed (chemically) by rainwater or biological action. These processes are collectively termed weathering. Once a rock has been broken up by weathering, the small rock fragments and individual mineral grains can be eroded from their place of origin by water, wind or glaciers and transported to be deposited elsewhere as roughly horizontal layers of sediment
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1.2 Minerals and rocks

To begin with, it is necessary to explain the meanings of the two terms ‘minerals’ and ‘rocks’.


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13 Post-compulsory science education

In a speech to the Institute of Economic Affairs in 2001, the then UK Secretary of State for Education said:

Young people choosing vocational study will be able to see a ladder of progression that gives structure, purpose and expectation to their lives, in the same way that a future pathway is clear to those who leave school to gain academic A-levels and enter university. Over-16s in full-time education will be abl
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12 Science in secondary schools

The first three readings in this course use the context of secondary education, particularly in the UK and Australia. In this section, I'll be looking again at the issues highlighted in the previous section on primary science and drawing comparisons with experiences in secondary schools; I'll re-visit much the same issues when I consider post-compulsory science education in Author(s): The Open University

10 ‘Science for all?’ A look at some contexts

The following statement is from the science National Curriculum in England published in 2000.

The importance of science

Science stimulates and excites pupils’ curiosity about phenomena and events in the world around them. It also satisfies this curiosity with knowledge. Because science links direct practical experience with ideas, it can engage learne
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7.4.2 Assumptions within models

  • recognise that theoretical models carry in-built assumptions that limit the contexts to which the theoretical models can be applied;

  • recognise that the application of theoretical models to a particular context often involves approximations concerning the phenomenon under study.


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7.4.1 Uses of models not made explicit

  • recognise that many scientific findings follow from the use of theoretical models in addition to consideration of empirical data;

  • be aware that numerical values provided by scientists may be derived directly from data, or from the application of theoretical models to a data set.


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4 Reflection on this course

To review and consolidate the learning which you have gained from studying this course, you might like to consider the following questions:

  • Has studying the course changed your ideas in any way about what a ‘business’ is?

  • Why do you think that different ways of running a business have developed under English law (e.g. sole trader, partnership, company)?

  • What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of running
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3.5.1 Review of skills

Activities 5, 8 and 9 allowed you to demonstrate numeracy s
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4 Subtracting on paper

If the numbers you want to subtract are too large for you to do the calculation in your head, you can use a calculator. Alternatively, you can do the calculation on paper.

Write your starting number at the top with the number you want to subtract from it underneath. Because the order in which you subtract one number from another matters, it is important to put the correct numbers on top and bottom. Then draw a line underneath.

Write the numbers so the digits form columns and they
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2.2 Geometric shapes – quadrilaterals

A quadrilateral is a shape with four straight sides.
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2.3.1 Try some yourself

Activity 14

A piece of computer software is to be developed by a team of programmers. It is estimated that a team of four people would take a year. Which of the following times is the length of time taken by three program
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1.3 Using ratios

Time conversions are also ratios. The ratio of time measured in minutes to time measured in seconds is one to sixty (1:60), as there are sixty seconds in a minute.

Example 2

Adam's grandfather ran a mile in
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Bottled Water
Have you ever wondered where bottled water comes from and what impact this has on the environment? This informative, animated video looks at the complete process of producing bottled water and strives to answer the question, 'Bottled water - who needs it?' Highlighting the effects this has on the carbon footprint, we learn how bottled water is disseminated worldwide. This material forms part of the course U116 Environment: journeys through a changing world.Author(s): The OpenLearn team

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

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