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References

Anon. (2003) ‘Spy chief warns food industry over terrorism’, Environmental Health News, 24 October 2003, p. 2.
Cabinet Office (2003) Dealing with Disaster, revised 3rd edn, Civil Contingencies Secretariat.
Commercial Union Risk Management Ltd (1992) ‘Crisis: A timetable for recovery’.
Dodswell, B. (2000) A G
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7 Some philosophical issues

In this course we have considered global issues that have implications for our health and the health of future generations. This places our own lives in a different context and also indicates the uncertainties that surround the future. Whilst some environmental changes have very direct health consequences, we should not forget the indirect benefits that accrue from a healthy planet. The principle that ‘we should hand on to the next generation an environment no less rich than the one
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5.3 Global warming

Media attention has been such that it would be hard to have missed the fact that global warming is considered to be a ‘bad thing’. Why should this be so? What is so wrong with being a bit warmer? Anyway, is global warming really occurring and, if it is, what are the causal factors responsible for it?

Let us deal with this last question first. As we sit on a beach in summer, or in a sunny window seat in winter, we are aware of the Earth being warmed by the Sun. In fact the Earth is w
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5.2 Air pollution

There are many popular beliefs about air quality and health. As a child you might have been exhorted to, ‘go out and play in the nice fresh air’. Mountain air is often regarded as being particularly beneficial, especially for those who are recuperating from or suffering some types of respiratory diseases.

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5.1 Pollution and loss of biodiversity

Unfortunately, halting the disappearance of species cannot be achieved simply by measures such as putting fences around special habitats and asking people not to pick the flowers or disturb the breeding birds. Many species are vanishing because of pollution. You probably have a good understanding of the meaning of this term, but it is variously defined. The Open University has a course on environmental control and public health, in which pollution is defined as the introduction into th
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4.2 'Biological control'

We are also guilty of importing exotic species, some of which, like the rhododendron (imported from Asia to Europe), have run riot in the absence of natural predators or primary consumers, and so have tended to out-compete native plants. Sometimes introductions have been accidental; rats and many disease-causing organisms have spread around the world via relatively modern transportation such as sailing ships. However, deliberate introductions, such as the rhododendron, have been made with wor
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

The material acknowledged below is contained in: Ordering the International: History, Chan
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References

Beetham, D. (1999) Democracy and Human Rights, Cambridge, Polity Press.
Brown, C. (2001) ‘Human rights’ in Baylis, J. and Smith, S. (eds) The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Caney, S.(2001) ‘International distributive justice’ Political Studies, vol. 49, pp. 974–97.
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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6.4 International retributive justice

A further difference between communitarians and cosmopolitans arises over the question of retributive justice. Communitarians think that it is the responsibility of each state to uphold justice. Collectively, states can pursue international justice through the auspices of the UN, and are answerable to each other, to public opinion and to NGOs. However, there is no basis for claims to universal jurisdiction, and to deal with matters not found in specific states (such as piracy), or that cross
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3.3 Examples of rights

Many things have been claimed as rights, as can be seen in the text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Table 1. One set of rights is citizenship rights. Primarily concerned with basic constitutional issues, these rights should, in Dworkin's phrase, ‘trump’ other considerations such
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2.1.1 Where did the attempt to define notions of rights internationally come from?

To some extent, this ideology of rights was new because it was expressed at the international level with new vigour, with the horrors of the Second World War and the calculated extermination of Jews, gypsies and others in mind. The discourse of individual rights had a stronger impact on international politics than at any time previously, as did the notion of a right to national self-determination. Yet this new departure for international politics also built upon ideas about rights that had be
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Riddle of the Tay Bridge disaster
On December 28th 1879, the Tay Bridge collapsed as a train passed over it, killing all 75 passengers on board. At the time of this tragedy, the Tay Bridge was the longest bridge in the world, and to this day the accident remains the worst structural disaster the UK has ever seen. This album attempts to unlock the mystery of this catastrophe, through several plausible explanations and expert opinions. This material forms part of the course T173 Engineering the future.Author(s): The OpenLearn team

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Air Pollution
How we can be sure our air is safe to breathe? This album introduces the principles and concepts of air quality management and looks at how we analyse pollution control problems. Five video tracks review the nature and characteristics of air pollution today and demonstrate how air quality data is interpreted. They include a comparison between shipping and car emission levels, the processes used to remove pollutants from the air, and ways in which British Aerospace could limit its Volatile Organ
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5.4.3 Two key leadership activities

  • Providing feedback: giving evaluative feedback so that it is experienced as helpful rather than destructive.

  • Problem ownership: the importance of accepting responsibility for our own problems, rather than blaming others.


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4.5.2 10 Gigabit Ethernet

The standard for 10 Gigabit Ethernet (IEEE 802.3ae, lOGbE) was approved in July 2002. The main use of lOGbE, initially at least, is for backbone networks which interconnect 10, 100 or 1000 Mbit/s Ethernet hubs. These hubs might be widely separated geographically, so the standard includes physical layer specifications specifically for WAN (wide area network) applications as well as LAN applications. The WAN specification is for operation at slightly under 10 Gbit/s, 9.95328 Gbit/s, so as to be
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2.4.1 Multimode distortion

With multimode fibre, the main cause of pulses spreading is the multiple paths that signals can traverse as they travel along the fibre. This phenomenon of multimode distortion is illustrated in Figure 5.

<
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1.2 Wavelength or frequency?

In this unit you will find frequent references both to the wavelength of light and the frequency of light. It is important to be able to work with both, and convert from one to the other. In the context of optical-fibre communication, the light radiation we are concerned with is usually in the infrared region of the spectrum.

To identify the position in the electromagnetic spectrum it is usual to refer to the wavelength of light, rather than its frequency. Thus I will refer to the ‘13
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References

Austin, J. (1986) How to do things with words. Edited by J. O. Urmson and Marina Sbisà. New York: Oxford University Press
Engineering Council UK (n.d.) Statement of Ethical Principles.
Frayn, M. (1965) The
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3.5 Biological characteristics of natural waters

In addition to the easily visible plants and animals which live in or on a river, there are many small and often microscopic species which play a vital role in maintaining the health of a river. Their relevance to water quality is discussed further in the sections that follow.


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