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2.1 Behavioural, cognitive and biological perspectives

So far we have discussed what contributes to our ideas of ‘abnormality’ and these issues have been illustrated by examining the real-life example of dyslexia. We will now consider the different potential explanations that have been offered to account for the observed symptoms of dyslexia.

Uta Frith (1999) has provided a useful framework for thinking about the nature of developmental difficulties (see Figure 2).

Frith suggests that there are three main perspectives on any given
Author(s): The Open University

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1.7.3 Differentiating dyslexia from other developmental conditions

While dyslexia is distinctive, there are other developmental syndromes that often co-occur with it. Examples include:

  • developmental dysphasia – specific difficulties with spoken language

  • attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder – involving particular problems with concentration and/or behaviour

  • developmental dyspraxia – developmental coordination disorder.

Developmental dysphasia

Developm
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1.6 Positive indicators for dyslexia

Dyslexia is recognized if the person shows various core behavioural symptoms or other features associated with dyslexia.

As mentioned in the previous section, contemporary approaches also involve identifying positive indicators that signal potential dyslexia by their presence. Dyslexia involves specific weaknesses in areas that relate to written language, but because it is not associated with a g
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Conclusion

One of the central aims of this course has been to give you a sense of how teaching assistants are part of an exciting educational development. We have therefore set the employment of teaching assistants in the context of the widespread growth of a new paraprofessional workforce across public services. We have noted the gendered nature of this workforce in schools, identified reasons why local parents in particular are attracted to working in schools, and highlighted the valuable contr
Author(s): The Open University

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2.6 Reflecting on identity

Activity 3

0 hours 20 minutes

How would you describe your identity or identities? What kind of words would you use to describe yourself in terms of:

    Author(s): The Open University

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2.2 Analysing communication problems

Below are two very different responses to Case Study 1.

  1. The main cause of the ‘communication problem’ was the Bangladeshi woman’s poor grasp of spoken English, which meant she was unable to communicate her needs clearly or to understand what was being said to her during her stay in hospital. She probably lacked confidence in herself, either because of her language difficulties or because of her cultural background. Perhaps the hospital could have
    Author(s): The Open University

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1.4 Service users' views: What services?

When people are consulted about the services they have received they express strong views not only about access to services but also about what those services are. For example, the shift from a home help service to a personal care service has raised many concerns. The consultations for the book this course was based on and other research (see, for instance, Sinclair et al., 2000) both indicate that (unknown to managers) workers sometimes go beyond their allotted tasks in order to meet service
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2.1 Introduction

Before making judgements about the value of play, it is important to be clear about how we define ‘play’. Is play unstructured exploration of the immediate environment? Does participating in a board game count as play? Does a baby's exploration of a treasure basket count as play? Are children playing when they share rude jokes in the playground? Are children playing when they act out a scene from Roman life in assembly? In the next activity you have the opportunity to identify those activ
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • examine the place play has in the curriculum framework/guidance or documents most relevant to a personal setting

  • identify various definitions of play

  • demonstrate an awareness of ideas about the value of play and adults' attitudes towards play

  • consider play in a personal setting and understand children's perceptions of play

  • demonstrate an awareness of issues such as gend
    Author(s): The Open University

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Persistence in Economic and Political Institutions
Most research in political economy starts with the presumption that institutions persist and shape the political-economic interactions of different groups and agents. Many societies, however, experience frequent changes in their political institutions. Certain economic institutions also change. In the face of this picture of frequently changing institutions, do such institutions really persist? Professor James Robinson, Harvard University, discusses the nature of institutional persistence and
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Public Bailout of Bank’s Recklessness
In response to the ongoing sub-prime crisis, the recently published Crosby Report recommends that the Government uses public money to swap bank’s seriously damaged mortgage-backed securities for pristine government bonds. Matthew Watson from the Department of Politics and International Studies at Warwick University talks about these recommendations, and how the global ‘credit crunch’ is affecting Labour’s popularity with the electorate.
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5.95J Teaching College-Level Science and Engineering (MIT)

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11.165 Infrastructure in Crisis: Energy and Security Challenges (MIT)
The purpose of this seminar is to examine efforts in developing and advanced nations and regions to create, finance and regulate infrastructure systems and services that affect energy security. We will introduce a variety of methodological and disciplinary perspectives. During the seminar, students will explore how an energy crisis can be an opportunity for making fundamental changes to improve collapsing infrastructure networks. The sessions will be used to introduce the challenges to modern s
Author(s): Karen R. Polenske,Apiwat Ratanawaraha

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9.916 Special Topics: Social Animals (MIT)
Humans are social animals; social demands, both cooperative and competitive, structure our development, our brain and our mind. This course covers social development, social behaviour, social cognition and social neuroscience, in both human and non-human social animals. Topics include altruism, empathy, communication, theory of mind, aggression, power, groups, mating, and morality. Methods include evolutionary biology, neuroscience, cognitive science, social psychology and anthropology.

Author(s): Rebecca Saxe

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14.15J Networks (MIT)
Networks are ubiquitous in our modern society. The World Wide Web that links us to and enables information flows with the rest of the world is the most visible example. It is, however, only one of many networks within which we are situated. Our social life is organized around networks of friends and colleagues. These networks determine our information, influence our opinions, and shape our political attitudes. They also link us, often through important but weak ties, to everybody else in the Uni
Author(s): Daron Acemoglu,Asu Ozdaglar

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21W.747 Classical Rhetoric and Modern Political Discourse (MIT)
This course is an introduction to the history, theory, practice, and implications of rhetoric, the art and craft of persuasion throughAnalyzing persuasive texts and speechesCreating persuasive texts and speechesThrough class discussions, presentations, and written assignments, you will get to practice your own rhetorical prowess. Through the readings, you'll also learn some ways to make yourself a more efficient reader, as you turn your analytical skills on the texts themselves. This combination
Author(s): Leslie Perelman

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Religious Toleration and Political Liberalism
Professor Susan Mendus (York) gives a talk for the Science and Religious Conflict Conference 2010. Dr Nick Southwood (Oxford) is the commentator
Author(s): Susan Mendus, Nick Southwood

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Rights not set

Reflections on the 2008 Campaign: What are the Implications for the Future Vitality of our Democracy
politics, political science, social science, democracy, history, government, election, president, Democrat, Republican, conservative, liberal, congress, left, right, campaign, organization, vote, economic crisis, debt, policy, swing state, technology, ene
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What’s Wrong (And Right) With Russia and Why Should You Care?
Putin, economics, governance, unstable, foreign policy, politics, democracy, totalitarianism, authoritarianism, communism, United Russia, autocracy, re-nationalization, linguistic influence, health, rule of law, Yeltsin, GDP, counterfactual, investments,
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Nukes, Kooks, and Democracy in Iran
Iran, nukes, democracy, nuclear, weapons, Iranian studies, republic, Islam, Islamic, Persia, revolution, regime, theocracy, mullah, democratic elections, hostage, crisis, iraq, Israel, diplomacy, diplomatic negotiations, oil, gas, Tehran, war, government,
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