Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Health and Social Care. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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2.1 Introduction

Western society is increasingly preoccupied with concerns about risk, so much so that some sociologists now define it as ‘risk society’ (Beck, 1992). It is argued that people in general are experiencing heightened levels of anxiety in response to rapid technological and social change. News stories in the media are filled with warnings and dire predictions for the future. This is particularly true when the potential consequences appear to be both catastrophic and difficult to predict, such
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1.2.3 Boundaries of ‘normality’

The origin of the ‘other’ in society is the widespread human tendency to create categories where people who don't fit in can be placed away from the mainstream. Social categories may lead to prejudice and discrimination, but may also lead to the physical separation of people to the margins of that society. Sibley (1995) traces the physical marginalisation of people in what he calls the ‘geographies of exclusion’. Part of the process of exclusion is where the ‘bad’, the ‘mad’ a
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1.6 Valuing diversity

Social workers need to recognise diversity: valuing and respecting service users – irrespective of, for example, their ethnicity, gender or age – is central to good practice. It is also about working in a way that counters the unfair or unequal treatment of individuals or groups on the basis of their race, gender, class, age, culture, religion, sexuality or ability. There is a growing body of law that seeks to prohibit and punish a range of discriminatory behaviours in various kinds of so
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5.2.1 Supply-side measures

On the supply side of our energy systems, there is a very large potential for improving the efficiency of electricity generation by introducing new technologies that are more efficient than older power plant. The efficiency of a power plant is the percentage of the energy content of the fuel input that is converted into electricity output over a given time period. Since the early days of electricity production, power plant efficiency has been improving steadily. The most advanced form
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you t
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand some of the key ways in which globalisation is shaping the world today

  • give examples of how ideas of 'proximity' and 'distance' can be used to understand an increasingly demanding world

  • illustrate the importance of recognising the liveliness of the natural world.


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Introduction to structural integrity
The I-35W bridge collapse in Minneapolis in August 2007, resulting in at least 13 deaths, illustrates the importance of structural integrity. This free course, Introduction to structural integrity, looks at the investigation that followed the collapse of the Silver Bridge over the Ohio River in 1967 which demonstrates how the study of safe design and the assessment of components and structures under load is of increasing importance in engineering design. Author(s): Creator not set

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2.4 Dynamic equilibrium

Homeostasis is the term used to describe the dynamic equilibrium that maintains living systems. Homeostasis could be described as the perfect blend of positive and negative feedback cycles in order to maintain living systems.

Homeostasis occurs at all levels of organisation within living systems. Individual cells are constantly pumping chemicals across their membranes in order to maintain the appropriate chemical composition for crucial functions such as metabolism and DNA repair
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1.1 Aim

The activities and resources in this section engage you in an interdisciplinary investigation of your personal ecology by looking at a range of temporal, spatial, and organisational scales – from the personal to the global, from the short term to the long term. The aim is to gather evidence to help you r
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2.1 Learning and culture

As discussed in Reading 1.6, the behaviour of all living organisms that determines their resource use is mostly controlled by a set of models encoded in their genetic material. Most significant changes in the behaviour of a particular species of organism are usually a result of genetic evolution. But, som
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce
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7.3.6 Laser ablation deposition

Another close cousin to sputter deposition is laser ablation deposition. Ion bombardment of the target is replaced by a focused pulse of light from an ultraviolet laser. Although each pulse may carry only 1 J of energy, this is delivered within 1 ns to a 1 mm spot on the target surface. This represents an astonishing power density and the target surface explodes into vapour that can be caught on the waiting wafer surface. It is vital to scan the focus point across the target surface or you wi
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3.7.1 The machined-at-once tip and cantilever

Just as in conventional manufacturing, micro engineering is cheapest to do if as few different materials as possible are used and if the number of separate processes involved is minimised. Therefore, the idea of making the cantilever and the probe out of the same material and in the same process step is a very attractive one.

When silicon nitride is deposited onto a silicon surface, it produces a thin film that coats the whole of the material to an equal thickness. We have already seen
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3.5 Scanning modes of the AFM

One of the interesting effects of scale is the answer to the question of whether the probe needs to come into contact with the surface of the sample being scanned. The cantilever on which the probe tip is mounted is a very compliant structure. The control system of the AFM ensures that the deflection of the cantilever, and hence the force it exerts on the surface, is maintained within very strict limits. Author(s): The Open University

3.3 The scanning tunnelling microscope

The first scanning probe microscope, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), was invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in 1981, and used the quantum-mechanical effect of electron tunnelling (in which electrons ‘tunnel’ through an energy barrier that classical physics would suggest is too high to cross). In this instance, the energy barrier is the tendency of the metal of the probe tip to want to hang on to its electrons. In effect, as you try to remove an electron from the surface
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5.15 Further investigation is possible

There are still many mysteries that surround the Tay Bridge disaster, largely because so little was recorded at the time of construction. For instance, questions remain about the details of reject rates for the castings, and modifications made to the first designs of the piers and their component parts.

Although enlargement of the BoT set of pictures has helped clarify the various failure modes described by Henry Law and others at the enquiry, it has also revealed yet more mysteries. Wh
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2.1 Overview

Catastrophes of human origin can be just as traumatic as those of natural origin, and are studied with even greater intensity for their causes. There are several ways disasters of human origin can be classified, depending on cause or size or origin. Another way of looking at them is by the kind of human activity – perhaps mining, fishing or transportation. Equally, disasters could be classified according to the kind of event that occurred during the accident – perhaps collision, sinking,
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • describe and give examples of how self-assembly enables construction ‘from the bottom up’ in natural materials

  • explain what is meant by primary and higher-order structure in proteins and give examples

  • give examples of the range of functions carried out by proteins within cells

  • describe how a combination of strong and weak bonding within biopolymers and lipids is used to build hier
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