2.3.5 Mixed structures

Teams often have mixed structures:

  • some members may be employed to work full time on the project and be fully responsible to the project manager. Project managers themselves are usually employed full time.

  • others may work part time, and be responsible to the project manager only during their time on the project. For example, internal staff may well work on several projects at the same time. Alternatively, an external consultant workin
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7.2.8 Trust brokerage

This business model describes those companies or organisations who provide some service connected with security or trust. For example, as you will see later in the book, copyright is a major issue for the internet. A company might develop a sophisticated graphic which could easily be copied by another company that would then claim that they developed the graphic. A trust company might offer the facility for companies to register their work with them and then be able to testify to the date tha
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7.3 Studying protein–protein interactions

The investigation of protein–protein interactions is a very important aspect of understanding proteins. Identifying binding partners can give insight into a protein's function. Many different methods and technologies have been developed to identify and characterise interactions between proteins, a few of which are described here.


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1.5.3 Summary of Section 1.5

  1. Some annual plants and insects can spend the winter at juvenile stages, such as seed, egg, larva or pupa. Butterflies in Britain display a variety of juvenile overwintering strategies.

  2. Migration often results in high mortality, but completion of the journey results in higher breeding success, due to increased availability of food and fewer competitors.

  3. Birds increase their body mass, sometimes by up to 50%, prior to migration. T
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5.5.3 Plotters

A plotter is a special type of printing device mostly used by architects, engineers and map makers. Here the printed output is produced by moving a pen across the paper. Sometimes several differently coloured pens are available. Plotters are obviously most suitable for line drawings, which is why architects, for instance, use them. I've mentioned them here, however, because – in contrast with monitors and printers – they produce an analogue output directly.


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6.2.3 Groups

The large group portrait came to commercial prominence in the 1880s, probably as a result of the widespread introduction of dry plate negatives. These negatives could be bought ready made over the counter. They did not require immediate processing and they reduced exposure times significantly. The group portrait involved the production of a single negative and a potential sale to each member of the group. Customer costs were kept low without injury to the photographer's profits. School, work
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24.09.2011 – Langsam gesprochene Nachrichten
Trainieren Sie Ihr Hörverstehen mit authentischen Materialien. Nutzen Sie die Nachrichten der Deutschen Welle von Samstag – als Text und als verständlich gesprochene Audio-Datei. Der derzeitige russische Regierungschef Wladimir Putin will wieder Staatspräsident werden. Auf einem Kongress der Regierungspartei "Einiges Russland" erklärte sich Putin zur Kandidatur bei der Wahl im März 2012 bereit, unmittelbar nachdem ihn der jetzige Präsident Dmitri Medwedew dazu aufgefordert hatte. Im Fall
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Activity answers

Study Note: As outlined in the text I have not provided answers to all Activities. This is for two reasons:

  1. For some activities only you can devise the answer and any I gave would be distracting or unhelpful.

  2. For others in-text answers are given.


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This video is accompanied by text. "After the war-ravaged times of the 1940s and early 1950s, Americans turned their attention to domestic concerns. President Eisenhower's strong yet pleasant demeanor was the antithesis of Truman's cold scowl and helped usher in a more friendly and family-oriented era. While the Republican accepted much of the previous administration's New Deal, he also promoted policies that nurtured the growing economy. The philosophy of the Eisenhower administration—labeled
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5.10 Fluoridation

The addition of fluoride to water has caused much controversy and public debate. The problem seems to be that some see it as the addition of a poison, and others see it as the use of mass medication whether the individual wishes it or not.

Many waters do, however, have a natural fluoride content (Figure 33) and it has been suggested that the presence of fluoride in a concentration of 1.0 mg l−1 is beneficial in preventing dental decay. Above this concentration there is the
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6.1 What is a pie chart?

A pie chart is a circular chart (pie-shaped); it is split into segments to show percentages or the relative contributions of categories of data.

6.1.1 When are pie charts used?

A pie chart gives an immediate visual idea of the relative sizes of the shares of a whole. It is a good method of representation if you wish to compare a part of a group with the whole group. You could us
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4.1.1 Space problems

Probably the best known of these is the fact that the internet is running out of space for identifying computers. Each computer in a network needs to be identified by a unique data pattern known as an IP address. The current technology used to transport data around the internet is such that in the comparatively near future we shall run out of space to hold these unique addresses. Happily this is a problem that has been identified and groups of researchers around the globe have developed new t
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Summary: Cavitation is the transition of a fluid into vapour due to local reduction of pressure which is generated by high local flow velocities. The transition of a fluid into vapour also occurs during cooking of water by an increase of the local temperature. The term cavitation is generally reserved for conditions in which the temperature of the bulk fluid is not changed. Although cavitation can occur in many situations this course focuses on ship hydrodynamics and ship propellers. The course
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