1 Putting the unit in context

This course, taken from T883 Business operations: delivering value, is concerned with the management of ‘processes’ – the organised set of resources and related activities that are essential for the delivery of goods and/or services to customers. These processes or ‘operations’ form the very essence of any enterprise, and it is critically important that they are managed well to be effective and efficient.

The full course consists of three main blocks of study:


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Conclusion

We have seen how a solution falls into one of three categories (innovation by context, innovation by development, and routine solution) according to the need that drives it. Furthermore, the need is shown to be the point of reference that should be kept in sight throughout the process of finding solutions. Unless the need is accurately stated, the ideal solution cannot be obtained – a case of 'garbage in, garbage out'.

We have examined the process of finding a solution step by step, u
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7.4 The impact of technology on society

Engineering is apparently driven by the needs of society. The technology that results, in turn, drives other changes in our everyday lives. One of the basic needs identified in Section 2 was for shelter. There are many fine examples of long-surviving structures such as pyramids, aqueducts, bridges, walls, functional buildings, and so on. Remarkably these constructions were completed without the depth of analysis and understanding that is available today (though we don't necessarily know much
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7.2 The professional engineer

It has been suggested that there are four main criteria that identify a profession:

Custody of a clearly definable and valuable body of knowledge and understanding associated with a long period of training.

A strong unitary organization which ensures that the profession generally speaks with 'one voice'.

Clearly defined and rigorous entry standards, backed up by a requirement to register with the profession
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5.1 The development of the bicycle

Section 4 has looked at how we can follow a logical route or map, from the expression of a need, to arrive at possible solutions to a problem. In Sections 5 and 6 we look in more detail at two quite different examples of engineering problems. Our first example is the historical development of the bicycle frame; the second concerns a vital component of a car's airbag system.

The weight of a bicycle frame is a major burden that the cyclist has to bear. There have certainly been times when
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4.5 Model the best solution

In moving from the 'possible solutions' to the 'best solution' box, Figure 12, we have to assume that a certain amount of evaluation has been done in the previous loop. The solution is still on paper, and probably not much more than a sketch, but something is badly wrong if the best solution to co
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6 Radiation

All the primary vibrators we discussed in the previous section can to some extent communicate vibrations to the surrounding air and hence radiate sound. However, some radiate sound better than others. Air columns, for example, radiate sound quite well. Even though only around 1% of the energy possessed by a vibrating air column is radiated away, this is enough to produce a clearly audible note.

Similarly, circular membranes and circular plates are also good sound radiators. They have a
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5.9.2 Ultrafiltration (UF)

This employs membranes with smaller pores (0.001–0.02 μm) than those for microfiltration and utilises much greater pressure (up to 3000 kPa). An atomic mass unit is 1/12 of the mass of a neutral atom of the most abundant isotope of carbon, i.e. I.66X 10−27 kg.

Commonly, the membranes are made of polysulphone, polyacrylonitrile, polyamide and cellulose acetate. Inorganic ceramic membranes are also used. Owing to its ability to remove very small particles, UF is mainly use
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4.2 New ways of thinking and acting: systems practice

There are a wide variety of concepts and theories relating to management and managing. This course is centred on the ideas and techniques that we believe define systems thinking, but it also draws upon concepts and theories from other areas where these are deemed to be useful. On top of this we see systems practice as requiring a readiness to use the experiential model of learning set out by Kolb, bringing theory and practice together in a meaningful way.

It may be helpful to set out wh
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2.2 Degradation, dissolution and corrosion

A variety of common terms are used to describe the ways in which structural materials can be attacked by environments and although they do have specific connotations, they are frequently used as blanket terms for material deterioration. I shall attempt to define them in a more specific way, namely:

  • Degradation: loss of strength of non-metals such as wood, rope or textile.
  • Dissolution: removal of material in solution owing to the attacking medium.
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Start writing fiction
This album provides the budding author with everything they need to know about approaching the art of fiction writing. Each track contains discussions and interviews with best-selling novelists from a variety of backgrounds including Alex Garland, Louis de Bernières, Abdulrazak Gurnah and Monique Roffey. This enlightening and engaging series tackles the practicalities and pitfalls of writing fiction. It contains invaluable advice on the creation of characters, the structure of narratives and ho
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The Acropolis and the Parthenon
The Acropolis is one of the most famous ancient sites in the world. Rising over the city of Athens 150 metres above sea level, it consists of several significant archaeological remains of temples dedicated to various deities, and civic buildings. This album offers a chance to tour the Acropolis and examine its many buildings, including its best preserved temple, the Parthenon, along with its friezes, known as the Elgin Marbles. Also, the album follows the route of the procession that took place
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Roman funerary monuments
How and what can we learn from fragments? Thousands of fragmented inscriptions survive from the ancient city of Rome, the majority of which are funerary inscriptions or epitaphs from tombs. This album looks at the impact of funerary monuments. From the Mausoleum of Emperor Augustus, to the more humble tombs of freed slaves, these monuments reveal a great deal about the people and families commemorated. Examining the type, scale, location, decoration, and epitaph of each tomb allows us to bu
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Inuit Throat Singing
In many cultures, song is perhaps one of the most important traditions. What is extraordinary about the Inuit musical tradition is the way they create their songs - with notes originating from their throats. The song isn't interrupted even when a breath has to be taken. The 6 tracks in this album focus on Tanya Tagaq, who describes the amazing art of throat singing and how her heritage and culture, carried in her heart forever, has driven her to continue with this unique tradition. This mater
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Late nineteenth-century Britain and America: The people and the empire
Historians on both sides of the Atlantic have argued that the empire was not an issue of popular interest in late nineteenth-century Britain and the United States. In this free course, Late nineteenth-century Britain and America: The people and the empire, we shall look more closely at the evidence available to assess the truth of this argument. Were the working people, as opposed to the political leaders, interested in the issue of expansion? Was such interest evident only among certain section
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Art history: early modern
The world of the early modern period (C10th - C16th) was one of religious obsession, power struggles and plunder. But it was also a world of stunning artistic endeavour. This collection shows how, encoded in the art and architecture of the time, you can find stories of political machinations, female influence and surging movements of people. We may think our own era has a monopoly on long-distance travel, but in the mediaeval period it was perfectly possible for Western Catholic artists to enc
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What is poetry?
Have you always wanted to try to write poetry but never quite managed to start? This free course, What is poetry?, is designed to illustrate the techniques behind both the traditional forms of poetry and free verse. You will learn how you can use your own experiences to develop ideas and how to harness your imagination. First published
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2 Conclusion

We have now looked specifically at two considerable monuments created at about the same time to commemorate the First World War. You have been using your eyes, and looking closely to respond to visual clues. We hope you found that, in doing so, you developed your understanding of them as memorials and also as ‘made objects’; and that in the process of asking questions about them you have reached some kind of explanation as to why they are as they are.

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1.3 Reading a Renaissance play

If you have never read a Renaissance play before – and even if you have – you may well find Doctor Faustus a challenging read. This is chiefly because, like the plays of Shakespeare, Doctor Faustus was written during the historical period known as the Renaissance (or the early modern period), when the vocabulary was significantly different from twenty-first-century English. It is also written largely in blank verse, a term that requires a few words of explanation. Look for a
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3.5 The Barque of Dante – innovation within tradition

The urge to depart from tradition, without abandoning classicism, is apparent in Delacroix’s earliest Salon exhibits. Displayed there in 1822, some years before the Sardanapalus, The Barque of Dante (see Plate 16) depicts an episode from the Inferno, a poem written by the medieval Italian poet Dante. The poet imagines being rowed, in the company of the Roman poet Virgil, across the lake surrounding the infernal city of Dis, which is in flames in the background. Sinners are cli
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