3.5 Common law

This may be a familiar term that you have encountered in newspaper reports or on the television or radio. Common law has its roots in history. In 1066, William the Conqueror began to establish a strong central government and to standardise the law in England. Representatives of the King were sent
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2 What is law?

This section will look at what we mean when we refer to ‘law’. What is ‘law’, how do we know it exists and how is it defined?

The ‘law’ is rarely out of the news and is often the focus for fictional drama, whether it is a television show depicting a police investigation, or one involving solicitors and advocates. It is something that touches our lives on a daily basis, it governs what we can and cannot do, it is used to settle disputes, to punish and to govern. There are law
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary and is used under licence.

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3.3 How is law made?

If you believe that laws are unjust in some way – perhaps because you regard them as being in conflict with our natural rights or consider that the rights they bestow do not adequately serve our interests – that does not alter their status as laws. The content of the law is decided by recognised law-making bodies in accordance with the rules of the constitution and the remedy for ‘unjust’ laws in a liberal democracy like the UK is to campaign to change them via the democratic process.
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2.1 First impressions

Newspaper headlines often project an image of social work under stress. Over the past two decades a number of events have raised serious questions about social work practice: there has been fierce debate in relation to child protection issues, over changes within the criminal justice system (for example the introduction of anti-social behaviour orders) and the effectiveness of community care. There have also been well-documented tragedies and errors of judgement, including recent inquiries in
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2.2 The Convention itself

The ECHR is essentially a charter of rights. Any charter of rights represents a consensus, a negotiated agreement between the drafters. Every state intending to adopt a charter will have its own vision and aims, and the drafters have to find a way of accommodating these visions and aims. This often results in the creation of provisions that are a compromise and are drafted in the widest possible terms. The ECHR is drafted in such a way. It is a vaguely worded aspirational charter inten
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4.2.7 Legal periodicals and newspapers

The Solicitors’ Journal (Sol Jo or SJ) has been reporting cases since 1856 and some cases are only to be found in its reports. In such circumstances, the reports may be cited in court. The same is also true for cases reported in other journals, such as the New Law Journal (NLJ) or the other specialist legal journals.

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4.2.2 Private reports (1535–1865)

These reports bear the name they do because they were produced by private individuals and are cited by the name of the person who collected them. They were, however, published commercially for public reference. An ongoing problem with the private reports relates to their accuracy. At best, it can be said that some were better, that is, more accurate, than others. Of particular importance among the earlier reports were those of Plowden, Coke and Burrows, but there are many other reports that a
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1.3.5 Generalising the formula for the mean household size

This method of calculating the mean may be summarised as follows.

The frequency of a household size is the number of responses corresponding to that size. The sum of the frequencies is the total number of households.

One use of symbols in mathematics is in provi
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1.3.4: Calculating means using frequencies and calculating weighted means

In some situations, various values in the batch get repeated (there may be a limited number of different values that can occur, for example). It can be simpler to group the data and record the number of times with which each different value occurs. The number is called the frequency. The following example explores this possibility and comes up with an equivalent formula for calculating the mean of the batch.

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1.4.1 Introduction

The term ‘conversion graph’ describes a graph used to convert a quantity measured in one system of units to the same quantity measured in another. For example, you can draw up a conversion graph to convert temperatures expressed in degrees Celsius to temperatures expressed in degrees Fahrenheit; to convert liquid volumes expressed in pints to the same volumes expressed in litres; to convert a sum of money expressed in one currency to the same amount expressed in a different currency.

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8 Dealing with remainders

How do you deal with divisions where there is a remainder and there are no more digits you can carry to? In most cases you will need to express your answer as a decimal number rather than as a whole number plus a remainder.

Take the example of 518 divided by 8.

Figure 15
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1 The importance of evidence

The gathering, presentation and assessment of evidence are crucial and indeed inescapable parts of the practice of social science, hence the crucial role of evidence in the circuit of knowledge (see Figure 1).

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