Introduction

This unit explores school geography, focusing upon how geography is currently being taught and understood. While studying this unit you will read about the significance of geography as a subject, considering what are the defining concepts for school geography and its educational value. The unit also includes a lesson plan and a look at definitions of geography as a medium of education.


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1.2 The warm up

The importance of an effective warm up to prepare the body for physical exertion cannot be emphasised enough.

Warm-up activities for dance should:

  • mobilise the joints;

  • increase the internal temperature of the body;

  • increase the heart rate and blood flow to the muscles;

  • make the muscles warm and pliable;

  • increase the range of movement around the joints;

  • increase
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References

Lavalettee, M. (1999) A Thing of the Past? Child Labour in Britain 1800 to the Present, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool.
Marshall, T.H. (1965) ‘Citizenship and Social Class’ in Class, Citizenship and Social Development: Essays by T.H. Marshall.
Post, J.E. (2000) Meeting the Challenge of Global Corporate Citizenship, Boston College Centre for Co
Author(s): The Open University

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2 Citizenship in the English National Curriculum

Key stage 3 of the Citizenship National Curriculum document requires pupils to – among other things – understand the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, and to appreciate the economic implications of the world as a global community, and the role of the European Union and the United Nations in fostering this.

In addition, the same document charges Key stage 4 citizenship teaching to deal with how the economy functions (including the role of business and
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are:

  • Critically appreciate the significance of claims made for ‘global corporate citizenship’.

  • Understand the nature of work and ‘social citizenship’.

  • Recognize the difference between ‘acts citizenship’ and ‘status citizenship’.

  • Be able to assess the ‘ethical dimension’ to arguments about citizenship.

  • See the relevance of historical comparisons for understanding co
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1 Is democracy really such a good thing?

Politics is vital to all of our lives. The way our schools and businesses are run, how we travel and make a living, even how we see ourselves – it all depends on political decisions. And we are all democrats today. We have elections, parties compete, we vote, and the winners govern us. But how often do we ask: is democracy really a good thing? Is there another way?

We take it for granted that democracy is a good thing and the best political system. But many people complain that democr
Author(s): The Open University

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1.3.3 Books and electronic books

Books are a good source of information. The publishing process (where a book is checked by an editor before publishing, and often reviewed by another author) means that books are reliable sources of information, although they may need to be evaluated for bias. A growing number of books can be found online.

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5.2 Scientists as a community of practice

Science has been described as involving observation, description, categorisation, investigation, experimentation and formation of theoretical explanations for naturally occurring phenomena – activities performed by scientists using scientific methods.

Jacob Bronowski (1973) said, ‘That is the essence of science: ask an impertinent question, and you are on the way to a pertinent answer’ – an apt way to put it, as with science, we set off from a starting point of curiosity and inc
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5.3 Actividad

Actividad 5.2

1 Look at the following picture of a bar. Write down what you see, using the structure hay + un/una.

Observe y escriba.


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4.3 Actividad

Actividad 4.2

Patricio, the architect from Chile, is working in Valencia. He has a busy schedule.

1 Read the following e-mail message with his diary, as sent to his secretary. Put the different places listed into the order he is vis
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3.5 Actividad

Actividad 3.4

Isabel, the Spanish theatre director of the group Expresiones, decides to take some time off to see the sights of Santiago.

Listen to the audio clip below to hear what the guide says about three different places
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2.4 Actividad

Actividad 2.4

In this activity you are going to practise asking where different places in Valencia are and what they look like. A guide takes Patricio Bustos, an architect, around the city while he asks about the sights.

Read the br
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2.2 Actividad

Actividad 2.1

1 Here are some pictures of famous monuments. Say whether you think they are in Latin America or in Spain. See how many you can guess.

Escriba dónde están los monumentos.


Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you will know how to:

  • describe places;

  • give and understand directions;

  • talk about urban transport;

  • find your way around inside a building.


Author(s): The Open University

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1.5.6 Copyright – what you need to know

An original piece of work, whether it is text, music, pictures, sound recordings, web pages, etc., is protected by copyright law and may often have an accompanying symbol (©) and/or legal statement. In the UK it is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 which regulates this.

In most circumstances, works protected by copyright can be used in whole or in part only with the permission of the owner. In some cases this permission results in a fee.

However, the UK legislation incl
Author(s): The Open University

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Improving aerobic fitness
Aerobic fitness is integral to successful sports performance and to maintaining good health. But what sort of exercise should you be doing to develop your aerobic fitness? This unit will help you to answer this question by introducing you to principles of aerobic exercise prescription. First published on Wed, 27 Jul 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

2.7.4 Identities are contextual and interactional

Different identities assume greater or less importance, and play different roles, in different contexts and settings, and in interactions with different people. Different aspects of people’s identity may come to the fore in the workplace and in the home, for example, while people might emphasise different aspects of themselves to different people (and different people may see different identities when they meet them).


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2.5 ‘Difference’ and identity

If differences on the basis of gender, ethnicity and disability are socially constructed, how should people view their identities, for example as men, or disabled people, or people of African–Caribbean origin? Where do such identities come from, and how useful are they in explaining people's experience of communication in care services?

Foucault’s ideas about changing discourses, and the ways in which they construct people's view of the world, can be applied to issues of ethnicity a
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

After studying this Unit you should be able to:

  • demonstrate your understanding of how social welfare policy started to evolve at a national level after World War II;

  • locate information relevant to social welfare through reference to a range of sources;

  • evaluate the reliability of information from different sources.


Author(s): The Open University

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2 A day in the life of a hospital ward

In 1996, we visited Ward 29, one of two gastroenterology wards in the medical unit, and recorded the views of patients and staff. The ward has 24 beds. Its patients were women and men, across a wide age range, suffering from digestive disorders – for example, stomach ulcers, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, cancers of the digestive system or problems with liver function brought on by alcohol abuse. Because it was winter the ward had more elderly people than it would have at other times
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