5.4 Empirical evidence

The neoclassical approach to discrimination produces a number of different explanations for why discrimination may exist in the labour market. Empirical analysis has tended, however, to focus not so much on testing these explanations but rather on establishing how much of an observed earnings differential between, say, men and women, can be accounted for by differences in their relative skill and education levels, their different work histories and differences in hours of work. That part of t
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Interactive simulation tool demonstrating the formula for calculating the volume of a 3D cylinder
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18.5 Government regulations and legislation

You saw earlier in Part 2 how governments can stimulate invention by providing incentives for manufacturers to develop new products. The example given was in the field of alternative fuel vehicles in the USA and Europe. As well as influencing the development of innovations, government legislation and regulations can also affect diffusion by creating conditions that encourage consumers to buy and use particular innovations.

In the UK the government has introduced a mixture of incentives
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Trailers for four films screening on May 2, 2012 in the Cinema & Television Arts Senior Film Showcase: - Not at Home - Pareto Principle - No Hay Nada Mas - Without a Shadow For contact and event information, visit CTVA's website: http://ctva.csun.edu/
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4 Inside the atom

Before going on to see how atoms can link (bond) with each other, you need to look at atoms in a little more detail. Doubtless they are not like blocks of Lego! So what are they like?

In fact, every atom has a complex internal structure. Given the extremely small size of an atom, you may find it difficult to visualise any smaller bits inside it. However, you may already be familiar with some of the effects of one of these components - electrons. It is easy to do an experiment tha
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See some images of this holiday as it is celebrated in Mexico. The interviewer asks for different opinions of the people as they are in the act of taking part in this celebration. (3:13)
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3.2 Using scientific notation

Scientific notation can be very useful when estimating the answers to calculations involving very large and/or small decimal numbers.

Example 9

A lottery winner won £7851 000. He put the money straight into a deposit account which earns 7.5% interest per annum (i.e. each year
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4.5 Global distribution of coal

Figure 35 shows the global distribution of coal deposits. The major areas are principally in the Northern Hemisphere; with the exception of Australia, the southern continents are relatively deficient in coal deposits.

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3.5.1 Hair cells transform mechanical energy into neural signals

The tectorial membrane runs parallel to the basilar membrane, so when the basilar membrane vibrates up and down in response to motion at the stapes, so does the tectorial membrane. However, as shown in Figure 14, the displacement of the membranes causes them to pivot about different hinging points and this creates a shearing force bet
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2 The models in action: what counts is what works?

As noted at the start of Session 1, the models of change can be both explanatory and normative. As explanations, each corresponds to a different theoretical tradition. So do you just pick the one that seems most compelling? Or do different theories help explain different kinds of phenomena? The answer suggested here closely follows the work on metaphors by Gareth Morgan (1986), who sets out a number of different models of organisations (some of which map on to those outlined here). Morgan arg
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6.2.4 Europe

Finally, an area that is subject to much dispute and political discussion is the whole issue of working conditions and the role of the EU. As already mentioned, the background to this is the question of the European Social Chapter. The UK has opted out of this EU initiative, which has to do with establishing common rights and conditions for working environments across the EU member states. A controversial aspect of this concerns the EU's European Works Councils Directive (see www.dti.g
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Is Wrong: There Will Always Be Scarcity

With the recent successes and announcements of sci-fi movies and TV shows like The Martian, Interstellar, and new incarnations of Star Trek and Star Wars, no one can deny that we crave futurism and stretching our imagination on what advanced technology can accomplish. Many look to the example of these fictional worlds as an indication of what life might be like when technology can provide for all of our basic needs, a condition some call “post-scarcity.”

The same people call
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This course examines the role of the engineer as patent expert and as technical witness in court and patent interference and related proceedings. It discusses the rights and obligations of engineers in connection with educational institutions, government, and large and small businesses. It compares various manners of transplanting inventions into business operations, including development of New England and other U.S. electronics and biotechnology industries and their different types of institut
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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

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3.3 Extending the distance scale

Having reviewed some of the properties of galaxies, we are now in a position to return to the question of how we are to develop further our methods of measuring distance.

The various steps taken in determining larger distances from known smaller ones are often called ‘rungs in the distance ladder’. The process of constructing a rung has been:

  1. Find a measurable quantity associated with a class of objects.

  2. Observe how the measura
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