Introduction to forensic engineering
Why do products fail and who finds out why? In this free course, Introduction to forensic engineering, we enter the complex world of forensic engineering and examine how scientists analyse product failure. From investigating a ladder accident to determining the reasons behind the failures in medical products, you will understand how the truth can be established. Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Theories in Technology Evaluation
This free course, Theories in Technology Evaluation, is devoted to exploring and analysing the theoretical and political nature of evaluation and assessment. It introduces theories and paradigms that play important roles in how we design, conduct and use evaluations and assessments, and deals with the thorny issue of participation in evaluation. Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

5.4 Critical modelling

Critical phenomena are the simplest to model of the three classes of temperature-dependent changes we have been examining. We don't need a power series such as 1 + αT+ βT2+…, nor exponentials such as exp(−Ea/kT). Instead we can describe the behaviour with logical expressions like these:

if T < Tc, then property=subcritical value (or fu
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.3.2 The project (single) team

The project, or single, team consists of a group of people who come together as a distinct organisational unit in order to work on a project or projects. The team is often led by a project manager, though self-managing and self-organising arrangements are also found. Quite often, a team that has been successful on one project will stay together to work on subsequent projects. This is particularly common where an organisation engages repeatedly in projects of a broadly similar nature – for e
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Conclusion

The building blocks of a basic optical-fibre communications link are the modulated light source, the fibre and the detector. There are choices to be made between different types of light source and fibre, with trade-offs between cost and performance. For example, for high signalling rates over long distances single-mode fibre will be used with a single-mode laser (possibly with external modulation) operating in the 1550 nm window, whereas for short-distance links operating at lower signalling
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.1 Introduction

Additional material for this unit, by David Chapman, January 2005

The start of optical-fibre communication is generally identified with a paper published in 1966 (Kao and Hockham, 1966). It was not until about ten years later that it was commercially viable, but from then on there was more or less continuous development, with substantial research effort taking place both in industry and universities.

Innovation continues today, and this additional material introduces some o
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.2 Ethical examples

But is this a tenable position? In other words, is it only the people who use the technologies who carry the ethical burden? Conversely, is ethics of any interest to engineers, programmers and scientists? What, in the first place, constitutes an ethical issue? To begin examining these questions, let's look at some examples.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.1 Introduction

The purpose of this section is to address the following interlinked questions:

  • Just what do we mean by business operations?

  • Why is it so important?

  • Where does technology fit in?

I begin answering these questions with a discussion of how best to represent operations activities, making the case for the process view of the organisation. This leads to discussion of the nature and scope of the operations managem
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1 Putting the unit in context

This course, taken from T883 Business operations: delivering value, is concerned with the management of ‘processes’ – the organised set of resources and related activities that are essential for the delivery of goods and/or services to customers. These processes or ‘operations’ form the very essence of any enterprise, and it is critically important that they are managed well to be effective and efficient.

The full course consists of three main blocks of study:


    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Conclusion

We have seen how a solution falls into one of three categories (innovation by context, innovation by development, and routine solution) according to the need that drives it. Furthermore, the need is shown to be the point of reference that should be kept in sight throughout the process of finding solutions. Unless the need is accurately stated, the ideal solution cannot be obtained – a case of 'garbage in, garbage out'.

We have examined the process of finding a solution step by step, u
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

7.4 The impact of technology on society

Engineering is apparently driven by the needs of society. The technology that results, in turn, drives other changes in our everyday lives. One of the basic needs identified in Section 2 was for shelter. There are many fine examples of long-surviving structures such as pyramids, aqueducts, bridges, walls, functional buildings, and so on. Remarkably these constructions were completed without the depth of analysis and understanding that is available today (though we don't necessarily know much
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

7.2 The professional engineer

It has been suggested that there are four main criteria that identify a profession:

Custody of a clearly definable and valuable body of knowledge and understanding associated with a long period of training.

A strong unitary organization which ensures that the profession generally speaks with 'one voice'.

Clearly defined and rigorous entry standards, backed up by a requirement to register with the profession
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5.1 The development of the bicycle

Section 4 has looked at how we can follow a logical route or map, from the expression of a need, to arrive at possible solutions to a problem. In Sections 5 and 6 we look in more detail at two quite different examples of engineering problems. Our first example is the historical development of the bicycle frame; the second concerns a vital component of a car's airbag system.

The weight of a bicycle frame is a major burden that the cyclist has to bear. There have certainly been times when
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.5 Model the best solution

In moving from the 'possible solutions' to the 'best solution' box, Figure 12, we have to assume that a certain amount of evaluation has been done in the previous loop. The solution is still on paper, and probably not much more than a sketch, but something is badly wrong if the best solution to co
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

6 Radiation

All the primary vibrators we discussed in the previous section can to some extent communicate vibrations to the surrounding air and hence radiate sound. However, some radiate sound better than others. Air columns, for example, radiate sound quite well. Even though only around 1% of the energy possessed by a vibrating air column is radiated away, this is enough to produce a clearly audible note.

Similarly, circular membranes and circular plates are also good sound radiators. They have a
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5.9.2 Ultrafiltration (UF)

This employs membranes with smaller pores (0.001–0.02 μm) than those for microfiltration and utilises much greater pressure (up to 3000 kPa). An atomic mass unit is 1/12 of the mass of a neutral atom of the most abundant isotope of carbon, i.e. I.66X 10−27 kg.

Commonly, the membranes are made of polysulphone, polyacrylonitrile, polyamide and cellulose acetate. Inorganic ceramic membranes are also used. Owing to its ability to remove very small particles, UF is mainly use
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.2 New ways of thinking and acting: systems practice

There are a wide variety of concepts and theories relating to management and managing. This course is centred on the ideas and techniques that we believe define systems thinking, but it also draws upon concepts and theories from other areas where these are deemed to be useful. On top of this we see systems practice as requiring a readiness to use the experiential model of learning set out by Kolb, bringing theory and practice together in a meaningful way.

It may be helpful to set out wh
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.2 Degradation, dissolution and corrosion

A variety of common terms are used to describe the ways in which structural materials can be attacked by environments and although they do have specific connotations, they are frequently used as blanket terms for material deterioration. I shall attempt to define them in a more specific way, namely:

  • Degradation: loss of strength of non-metals such as wood, rope or textile.
  • Dissolution: removal of material in solution owing to the attacking medium.
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Start writing fiction
This album provides the budding author with everything they need to know about approaching the art of fiction writing. Each track contains discussions and interviews with best-selling novelists from a variety of backgrounds including Alex Garland, Louis de Bernières, Abdulrazak Gurnah and Monique Roffey. This enlightening and engaging series tackles the practicalities and pitfalls of writing fiction. It contains invaluable advice on the creation of characters, the structure of narratives and ho
Author(s): The OpenLearn team

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

The Acropolis and the Parthenon
The Acropolis is one of the most famous ancient sites in the world. Rising over the city of Athens 150 metres above sea level, it consists of several significant archaeological remains of temples dedicated to various deities, and civic buildings. This album offers a chance to tour the Acropolis and examine its many buildings, including its best preserved temple, the Parthenon, along with its friezes, known as the Elgin Marbles. Also, the album follows the route of the procession that took place
Author(s): The OpenLearn team

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2