7.2.5 Trap 5: the final version trap

Ironically, the biggest mistake you can make, having got this far, is to assume your picture is finished. New realisations will crop up. Add these to your picture as you appreciate more and more of the complexity.

So, the check for avoiding this trap is to ask:

  • Have I had any new insights about the complex situation since I last added something to this picture?

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2015 The Open University

18.1 Introduction to diffusion

Having managed to get an innovation manufactured and ready for the market, there are a number of factors that influence how well it will sell and how rapidly it is likely to diffuse:

  • characteristics of the innovation itself

  • nature of the market

  • relevant government regulations.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

15 Part 2: 6 Key points of Part 2

You can experience this free course as it was originally designed on OpenLearn, the home of free learning from The Open University: Author(s): The Open University

12.3 Market pull

The alternative market pull model suggests that the stimulus for innovation comes from the needs of society or a particular section of the market (Figure 55). These might be needs perceived by an entrepreneur or manufacturer like Shaw and his cat's-eyes or they might be clearly
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

12.2 Technology push

The technology push model is a simple linear model that suggests that the innovation process starts with an idea or a discovery – it is sometimes called ‘idea push’ (Figure 51). Sometimes this is by a creative individual who has the knowledge and imagination to realise its
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

11.4 Step 3 – incubation

Incubation is a period when the inventor, having been working on the problem for some time during identification and exploration, is no longer giving it conscious attention. The problem and its solution have been put to one side, on purpose or not, but the subconscious mind is capable of holding on to the problem. During this time, according to Roy (Open University, 2004, p. 34), ‘the relaxed brain [is] repatterning information absorbed during the period of preparation often after receiving
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

11.3 Step 2 – exploration

This is the period when, following the identification of the problem, attempts are made to understand it better and to make a stab at designing a solution. This might be a short process or it could take years and involve a detailed search for information, experimenting with different designs, even redefining the problem as a result of this activity.

Alexander Graham Bell adopted a problem-focused strategy when exploring the problem of designing a working telephone. This strategy is one
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

11.1 Five steps to invention

I've looked at what motivates people and organisations to invent. I'll look more closely now at what's actually involved in inventing something.

Wherever invention occurs, whether with a lone inventor or in a creative team within an organisation, there seem to be common factors involved. There have been many attempts over the past 100 years to explain the creative process that occurs while people are attempting to solve problems. I'm going to combine ideas from two such models of the st
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

10.7.3 Opportunist

Some companies have an opportunist strategy and aim to identify new market opportunities, needs and demands. Rather than developing new products though, the inventiveness of such companies lies in finding new outlets for existing products. UK examples include Sock Shop and Tie Rack from the 1980s, and more recently the small companies that have made a profit selling a variety of ring tones for mobile phones.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5.15 Intellectual property and patents

At any stage of the innovation process, from invention to diffusion, a bright idea with market potential can be a target for unscrupulous copying. Or, as you've seen with simultaneous invention, people might be working on similar ideas in parallel and the origins of inventive ideas might be difficult to identify with precision. So it is sensible for inventors to establish their claim to a particular invention and to protect it against unauthorised exploitation by others.

There are diffe
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5.13 Diffusion and suppression

As an innovation becomes accepted by an increasing number of individual and organisational users it goes through the process of diffusion, which is the process of adoption of an innovation over time from limited use to widespread use in the market.

From its original installation within the grounds of Edison's Menlo Park laboratory in late 1879, his system of electric lighting was installed in increasing numbers of individual factory and textile mill installations, and urban stree
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Introduction

Historians on both sides of the Atlantic have argued that the empire was not an issue of popular interest in the late nineteenth-century Britain and the United States. This course examines some of the evidence available to assess the truth of this claim. More broadly, the course raises questions related to evidence: is it possible to discover what ‘ordinary’ people thought about expansionism?

‘I couldn't give a damn’; ‘I don't know anything about politics’; ‘Why don't they
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5.5 Entrepreneur

From this it is clear that money is a key requirement for transforming an invention into an innovation. Money pays for the people and equipment needed to refine the invention into a practical working prototype, and money pays for manufacturing it.

A key role in providing this vital monetary support is played by the entrepreneur. This is a persuasive individual or group providing the resources and organisation necessary to turn the invention into an innovation.

Entrepreneurs
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.7 Diagrams for communication

Commonly used diagrams for communication follow conventions that are widely understood, many diagrams used for connectivity as previously discussed also lend themselves to use in communicating ideas. A diagram developed for communication:

  • is large, clear and well laid out;

  • has shading and/or colour for emphasis;

  • has a title; and

  • has a key to the meaning of all the symbols used in the diagram.


    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to choose fro
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

8.8 Hinduism as ‘a world religion’: a more recent understanding

Traditionally, as we have seen, a Hindu was someone born to Hindu parents and into a caste with its appropriate dharma. The link between religious practice and a whole way of life bound the individual into a community from birth. Regional factors, parentage and caste affiliation largely determined the
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying the arts and humanities. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.2 Anti-Semitism

Anti-Semitism was not an invention of the twentieth century, nor was it simply a German phenomenon. In the years before 1914 violent pogroms were directed against Jews, who were made scapegoats for the problems of the Russian Empire. The flight of Jews from the east, first to escape the violent prejudices unleashed periodically in Tsarist Russia and then to escape the upheavals in the aftermath of World War I, sharpened the anti-Semitism which was already to be found in the west of Europe. Th
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.3.6 Credits

The contributors to the recordings in this course are Sorley MacLean and Iain Crichton-Smith; the recordings were produced by G.D. Jayalakshmi for the Open University.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.3.1 Politics

MacLean was a socialist from the age of twelve, and a Marxist by the late 1930s, when he believed that the Soviet Union and the Red Army were the only agents that could defeat Fascism. However, he never joined the Communist Party, and by 1944 events in Poland had thoroughly disillusioned him about Stalin and the Soviet Union. One reason why he could never commit himself fully to Communism seems quite clear: he retained from his Calvinist heritage a deep pessimism about human nature and human
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University