3.3 Quantitative and qualitative evidence

The Tables above provide official quantitative evidence: evidence, data or information which is expressed in numerical terms. On the face of it, this clearly shows that recorded crime increased significantly throughout the twentieth century, albeit with some ‘dips’ in recent years. Common sense is confirmed. But there are problems with these data. Remember, we are looking here at crimes recorded by the police. Do you think that all crimes are recorded? There might be different reas
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3.1 Claims about crime

Definitions beg questions. So do social narratives and stories. Again, we need, as social scientists, to begin with an analytical task. What are the key claims that are being made in the common-sense story of the problem of crime? What are the core arguments that hold the whole thing together? There are a number of these, but two seem to be particularly important.

Claim 1: UK society in the immediate
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Key skill assessment: Improving your own learning and performance
Learning new skills is what makes us human but can we improve how we go about learning new things in new situations? Learning how to learn can help you to understand what works for you and what doesn't when you set out to learn new skills, either for work, your education, training or everyday life. In this free course, Key skill assessment: Improving your own learning and performance, you will learn to recognise, use and adapt your skills confidently and effectively in different situations and
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

8.4 Implementing

As with assignments, this is the phase when you actually do the task - sit the exam or produce the final version of your end-of-course assessment. This is where monitoring your performance is really important. For most students, the crucial thing in an exam is usually to monitor the timing. Unlike the production of an assignment, an exam is a timed test; so, you need to pace yourself appropriately. Most end-of-course assessments have no time constraints although you may find the deadline very
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Course image: William Hook in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

All other materials included in t
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Information and Communication Technologies. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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8 Part B: Evidencing your IT skills

This Part requires you to present a portfolio of your work to demonstrate that you have used and integrated your IT skills within your study or work activities to achieve the standard required. For example, you might include learning about new software for a particular task, using databases and other resources more effectively in searching for information, setting up and using different ways of communicating and sharing information, setting up and using computer-based models to predict, expla
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7.4 Evaluating your strategy and assessing your work

Present a reflective summary that gives details of:

  • a judgement of your own progress and performance in the IT skills you set out to improve, including an assessment of where you feel you have made the greatest progress; discuss your use of criteria and feedback comments to help you assess your progress;

  • those factors that had the greatest effect on you achieving what you set out to do; include those that worked well to help you improve
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7.2 Developing a strategy

Present notes/records that show you have planned your use of IT skills. Your evidence must include:

  • the goals you hope to achieve over 3–4 months or so; you should indicate how these goals relate to the context in which you are working and to your current capabilities;

  • notes about the resources you might use, and what information you need to research to achieve your goals; for example, discussions and e-conferences, online resources, s
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2.1 Analysing text

Some people find it easy to use diagrams in their studies. But I realise that there are others who don't take to diagrams at all enthusiastically. If this is how you feel, please read what follows, as I am convinced that everyone can get something from using diagrams to help their thinking. However, if after working through these sections, you still believe that diagramming as an aid to studying is ‘not for you’, then don't force yourself into an approach that doesn't suit y
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3.7.3 Fluency

Try to make your essays flow from one sentence to the next. As we have seen, this is partly a matter of structure and partly of signposting. It is vital to think of your essay in terms of its overall structure – to move points around, and cut and trim, in search of a clear sequence for your ideas. Then, having worked out a structure, you have to ‘talk’ your reader through it, emphasising the key turning points in the essay, summarising where you have got to, showing how ea
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2.5.4. Choosing the right words and phrases

Both Philip and Hansa occasionally use words and phrases that don't really do the job they want. We saw, for instance, that Philip uses the word ‘resemblance’ when actually he means ‘contrast’. Here are some other examples from his writing.

Philip's words More accurate words
Paragraph 1
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6.2.4 Europe

Finally, an area that is subject to much dispute and political discussion is the whole issue of working conditions and the role of the EU. As already mentioned, the background to this is the question of the European Social Chapter. The UK has opted out of this EU initiative, which has to do with establishing common rights and conditions for working environments across the EU member states. A controversial aspect of this concerns the EU's European Works Councils Directive (see www.dti.g
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4. Balloon debate

Another statement from a 14 year-old student:

‘I don't want to do art – it's rubbish’

In addressing such a straight dismissal it is naturally worth considering the student's prior learning experiences, aptitudes and influences. However, this perception nevertheless encodes a declaration of value, which is not fundamentally different to some of the earlier quotes explored. It is perhaps unsurprising that negative perceptions voiced by policy makers, government figures and tho
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4.8 Gender and difference

The discussion above referred to some of the stereotypes about the ways in which men and women supposedly communicate and interact with each other. For example, there is a view that in meetings men tend to talk in a supposedly rational way, while women's talk is associated more with feelings and emotions. It was also suggested that male workers are more likely to be intimidating or overwhelming in their relationships with service users and, by implication, that female workers might be less in
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4.3 Reflecting on gender and identity

Activity 14

0 hours 20 minutes

References

Ahmad, W.I.U. and Atkin, K. (eds) (1996) ‘Race’ and Community Care, Buckingham, Open University Press.
Alibhai-Brown, Y. (2000) Who do we think we are? Imagining the new Britain, London, The Penguin Press.
Beveridge, W.H. (1942) Social Insurance and Allied Services, Cmd 6404, London, HMSO.
Burchardt, T., Hills,
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4 ‘Women's work’

Gender and power play a role in keeping issues pertaining to intimate care out of the public arena. One reason for carers' (who are much more likely to be women) comparative silence in our culture is that much of what many women do is defined as ‘private’ or ‘personal’. Unfortunately, things women talk about are often downgraded – being deemed unimportant or ‘boring’. When large and difficult areas of experience are left out of public discussion we need to ask why. Ignoring the
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1.3.7 Emotional feelings

In Sabom’s study all who reported a near-death experience were asked to describe their emotions during the experience. The predominant picture was one of calm, peace and tranquillity, in marked contrast to the physical pain and suffering felt before or after the event. Some spoke of sadness at seeing the efforts and distress of others trying to bring them back to life, and one woman spoke of being very happy until she remembered she was leaving her children behind. A few referred to a sense
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1.2.4 Theravada Buddhism

In all schools of Buddhism, the inevitability of death is seen as a fruitful topic for reflection and meditation, but in the Theravada tradition, which originated in Thailand, followers are especially encouraged to meditate upon death. In the beginning the meditator is asked to dwell on deaths of people who have led a pleasant life. Then the mind of the meditator can be turned to the inevitability of his or her own death, so as to develop ‘one-pointed’ concentration on this. To aid this a
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