2.2.1 Reading diagrams: questioning what they say

With each of these diagrams, and with others you are trying to read, there are several questions you can ask.

  • What is the purpose of the diagram, that is, what is it aiming to tell us?

  • How is the information imparted?

  • What assumptions does it make about our ability to understand it?

  • What are we expected to remember?

  • How successful is it in doing all
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1.2.7 Summary

  • What we must do to understand numbers as they are used as evidence in social science is to practise and so become familiar with them, and to understand the conventions which determine how they are used.

  • Sets of numerical data can be presented in many ways, as tables, bar charts, pie charts or line graphs. These are just different ways of trying to represent or make a picture of numbers. Which is used is largely a matter of which best shows
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this booklet.

Text

Wilson, J. (1998) ‘Hamilton child safety cu
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2.1 Reading techniques: scanning

There are three main techniques that you can use in order to read in such a way as to achieve your purpose: scanning, skimming, and focused reading. Let's take each in turn.

The technique of scanning is a useful one to use if you want to get an overview of the text you are reading as a whole – its shape, the focus of each section, the topics or key issues that are dealt with, and so on. In order to scan a piece of text you might look for sub-headings or identify key words and p
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Starting with psychology
The most ‘important and greatest puzzle’ we face as humans is ourselves (Boring, 1950, p. 56). Humans are a puzzle – one that is complex, subtle and multi-layered, and it gets even more complicated as we evolve over time and change in different contexts. When answering the question ‘What makes us who we are?’, psychologists put forward a range of explanations about why people feel, think and behave the way they do. Just when psychologists seem to understand one bit of ‘who we are’
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The autistic spectrum: From theory to practice
Most of us have a very vague and narrow concept of what autism is, based mainly on such stereotypes as Dustin Hoffman's character in the film Rain Man. In this unit you will discover that there is a wide spectrum of disorders associated with autism, and an equally wide range of approaches to diagnosis and treatment. First published on Tue, 04 Dec 2012 as
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EPOCH Psychology history timeline
This unit uses an interactive resource (EPoCH) to gain a better sense of how the historical and social context influences psychological inquiry. You will examine the different methods used by psychologists to investigate human behaviour and learn to identify the different perspectives that exist in psychology. First published on Tue, 04 Dec 2012 as Author(s): Creator not set

References

Ashworth, P. (2003) ‘An approach to phenomenological psychology: the contingencies of the lifeworld’, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 145–56.
Bordo, S. (1993) Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture and the Body, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.
Burkitt, I. (1999) Bodies of Thought: Embodiment, Identity and
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3.2 Consciousness of the body

Phenomenological theorists distinguish between the subjective body (as lived and experienced) and the objective body (as observed and scientifically investigated). These are not two different bodies as such (phenomenologists pride themselves on overcoming dualisms!); rather they are different facets of our experience and consciousness.

The body-subject, or subjective body, is the body-as-it-is-lived. I do not simply possess a body; I am my body (Merleau-Ponty, 1962
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3.4 The ‘flanker’ effect

A potential problem for the feature integration theory is the fact that the time taken to understand the meaning of a printed word can be influenced by other, nearby words. Of itself, this is not surprising, because it is well known that one word can prime (i.e. speed decisions to) another related word; the example nurse – doctor was given in Secti
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2.6 Summary of Section 2

The results of the visual attention experiments we have considered can be interpreted as follows.

  • Attention can be directed selectively towards different areas of the visual field, without the need to re-focus.

  • The inability to report much detail from brief, masked visual displays appears to be linked to the need to assemble the various information components.

  • The visual information is captured in parallel, but assemb
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1.2 Definitions of ‘normality’

What do we mean when we say something is ‘normal’?

Activity 1

Write down what you would consider to be ‘normal’ for each of the following examples:

  • women's height;


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Module team

Open University staff

Dr Dorothy Miell, Senior Lecturer in Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences (Course Team Chair)

Dr Paul Anand, Lecturer in Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences

Peter Barnes, Lecturer in Centre for Childhood, Development and Learning, Faculty of Education and Language Studies

Pam Berry, Key Compositor

Dr Nicola Brace, Lecturer in Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences

Dr Nick Braisby, Lectur
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1.5 Summary

  • In many societies and cultures psychology is now a very visible part of everyday life.

  • This unit aims to increase your knowledge of psychology and provide you with the tools to think about psychological issues.

  • In many countries psychology has an impact on policy, practice and culture in general.

  • Psychological research and knowledge may sometimes be developed from common sense, but, as a discipline, psychol
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6 Correlation

Activity 5

0 hours 20 minutes

This activity demonstrates how a simple correlation analysis can be carried out. Correlations tell us about the relationship between pairs of variables. For example:<
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5 Obtaining descriptive statistics

Activity 4

0 hours 20 minutes

This activity demonstrates how a simple dataset can be used to produce some basic statistics. You will see how the data from a simple experiment can be described in a
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2.2 Chair of Governors

The role of the Chair of Governors is particularly important, as it is the Chair who will provide leadership for the governing body. It can be a time-consuming job so, to prevent it from becoming too onerous, the Chair should encourage other members to become more involved.

An effective Chair can provide invaluable support for the school. A clear understanding of the role of the governing body, a positive and pro-active approach to the management of its responsibilities, and a good work
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1 Members of the governing body

Governors will have many demands upon their time and they must be sure that the time which they are devoting to school business is used wisely.

Creese (1995)

Governors are usually busy people with a genuine commitment to the school, but with limited time available. The governing body therefore needs to know, and use, the strengths of its individual members.

The 2002 Education Act has brou
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5.4.3 How to evaluate accessibility

Accessibility guidelines and checklists can be used to evaluate a design or prototype. Despite the difficulties associated with the use of guidelines, they can be a useful tool for getting general insight into the accessibility of a website or system. As we discussed earlier, the main limitation of the use of guidelines or checklists is the fact that background knowledge of disability and assistive technology is required in order to effectively interpret and apply such guidelines.

Once
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