3.1 Introduction

Andraesen (1995) states that for the social marketer ‘consumer behaviour is the bottom line’ (p. 14). In order to understand how to develop programmes that will bring about behavioural change we need to understand something about the nature of behaviour. The consumer behaviour literature typically borrows from the fields of sociology, psychology and social anthropology amongst others. There is a vast, and growing, body of knowledge on the subject and a few of the main elements will be dis
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1 The Case Study materials

Click here  to access the case study materials.


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9 Summary

This unit has focused on planning a project. At this stage you may find it useful to recap on the learning objectives introduced at the beginning of the unit and to think about some of the issues associated with them.

  1. You should now be able to develop plans with relevant people to achieve the project's goals. This will involve identifying and finding ways of including the appropriate people in the project.

  2. You should be able
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Introduction

This unit will help you to identify and use information in business and management, whether for your work, study or personal purposes. Experiment with some of the key resources in this subject area, and learn about the skills which will enable you to plan searches for information, so you can find what you are looking for more easily. Discover the meaning of information quality, and learn how to evaluate the information you come across. You will also be introduced to the many different ways of
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1.4 Seasoned equity offerings

The issuance of additional shares is called a seasoned or secondary equity offering (SEO). SEOs are common in the London market, but less common in the USA. In some countries, including the UK, one form of SEO is a rights issue. In such issues the existing shareholders are given the right to buy further shares, usually in an amount proportionate to their prevailing holdings. This is known as a pre-emption right.

While rights issues can support the need of a successful comp
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1.3 ‘Going public’

For many companies a point may be reached, particularly if the company has grown significantly in size and has aspirations for further expansion, to seek equity finance through an initial public offering of shares (IPO).

SAQ 4

In a recent
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • understand private equity and the role of venture capital companies in providing this;

  • understand why and how public equity issues can be undertaken;

  • look at the reasons for cross-listing on stock exchanges;

  • examine why a company might de-list from an exchange and return to private ownership.


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Introduction

The topic of ‘governance’ is one that has gained popularity, and the term is now used to embrace a range of concepts. This unit establishes some basic principles that will form the basis of your study. You will have the opportunity to consider how well these principles match up with your own observations of corporate organisations and behaviour

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Issues in international financial reporting (B853) which is no longe
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Conclusion

We hope this unit has set you thinking about how you and others make decisions. It has been a very brief and to some extent shallow introduction to some quite complex ideas. The reference list should give you some pointers to further resources which will help you explore this topic in greater depth.

Before you move on take some time for a final activity.

Activity 3

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3.8 Following up the report

The evaluation report will often contain recommendations for further actions and these may lead to new project ideas. Recommendations may relate to processes and procedures within the organisation. Project evaluation and debriefing can be a learning experience for the organisation as a whole, as well as for individuals. For example, British Petroleum gathers the lessons learnt from post-project appraisals in a series of booklets that are then used as guidance for writing project proposals. In
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1.3 Examples of projects

  • A project might involve establishing a new product or service, developing an existing product or service or discontinuing a product or closing a service that is no longer required.

  • A project might arise from recognition of new needs of customers or service users or from an opportunity that is expected to deliver benefits to the organisation.

  • Projects might also arise from a new organisational requirement, for example, as a
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1.11.2 Talk is dialogical

Discourse researchers have also argued that all talk is dialogical, meaning that when we speak we combine together many different pieces of other conversations and texts and, significantly, other voices. We are often quoting. Sometimes this quoting is marked as when we say ‘he said . . . then she said …’ but often it is indirect and unmarked as people take over the voices of others. We carry into our talk and writing fragments from many different sources which carry some of their
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3.1 Theorising situations

This unit explores the processes through which we comprehend the world around us. When it comes to understanding and explaining the way that social life operates, social scientists draw from a conceptual tool kit, just as we possess a conceptual tool kit for watching a movie or as a spectator at any sports event. There are times when all human beings feel that something appears to be plausible or appears to be false and we are quite aware that others would disagree with our own point of view.
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5.3 Heritage case studies: Scotland

These case studies introduce various typologies of heritage and the methods used to study them. They help draw attention to the fact that the heritage traditions in England, Scotland and Wales are not the same and are enshrined in slightly different legislation. Every study of heritage requires an understanding of the legal context and the traditions and history governing the object of heritage.

The first case study, by Mary-Catherine Garden, involves public memories of two significant
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3.8 Sustainable Scotland

This broad-based unit will introduce you to a number of different aspects of sustainability that impact on Scotland and the wider world. It wil appeal to anyone with an interest in a sustainable future in the context of contemporary Scottish society.

To access this material click on the unit link below. It leads to a separate OpenLearn unit and will open in a new window.

5 Conclusion

Are we now better equipped to answer the three questions posed in Section 1.1?

How are identities formed?

We present ourselves to others through everyday interactions, through the way we speak and dress, marking ourselves as the same as those with whom we share an identity and different from those with whom we do not. We use
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4.1.4 Summary

  • Identity is based on being the same as some people and different from others.

  • Identities are constructed in relation to place.

  • Difference is unequally weighted and can create categories of outsiders.

  • Individuals and groups have to negotiate both the uncertainties of social change and the constraints of inequality.


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2.2 Gender categories

Young children's gender categories are highly stereotyped. This can lead to assured predictions of an individual's preferences based upon knowledge of their gender, and the kinds of activities that they may typically engage in. Children develop such rigid gender categories in their search for certainty about gender. These categories are essentialist, having a simple in-group and out-group distinction that children use for understanding masculinity and femininity, and for defining their own ge
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6 Further resources

Gilleard and Higgs (2000) more fully develop some of the ideas explored by Giddens (1994) in their useful and comprehensive introduction to post-structural readings of older age. Elder's (1977) life history account offers compelling insights into the intersections of class and gender through a socialist lens, and represents an early and interesting example of the life history and biographical method. Chamberlayne et al. (2000) provide comprehensive and thoughtful insights into biographical me
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