5.2.4 Risk treatment

The risk treatment task is again carried out at unit level, in light of polices set out in Stages 1 to 3. The risks treated are those chosen for control at Stage 6.

  • Stage 7: select control objectives and controls For each risk chosen for control at Stage 6, a suitable control (countermeasure) must be selected from those suggested in the Standard or from elsewhere. The risks are treated in order of priority, according to the priority levels as
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11.4 Controlling cookies in Firefox

  • Open your browser.

  • On the top menu bar of the browser choose Tools > Options.

  • Then choose Privacy in the left panel and expand the Cookies heading.

9 Adware and spyware

The previous sections of this topic have been concerned with email, but the Internet provides yet more problems, in the form of adware and spyware on the Web. You may have seen pop-up messages on your browser screen offering services or products. What you may not realise is that if you respond to these messages, extra software may be installed alongside other programs without your knowledge.

Adware

Adware is ‘free’ software that is subsidised by displaying adverts


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The PROMPT checklist

In the table below is a checklist to help you apply the PROMPT criteria, adapted from the Open University Safari. You can use this to help you evaluate a website.

PROMPT Site 1 Site 2 Site 3
Presentation
Is the informatio
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4.2 Index

It is not practical for the search engine to go looking at every page on the Web whenever it receives a search request. Instead, the search engine consults a vast index to the Web. This index is prepared in advance and is stored as a database to make retrieval as efficient as possible. The index of a search site is just like the index of a book – it contains a list of words, each with a reference to the page on which that word was found. The reference to the original page is, of course, a U
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2.1 Introduction

In this section we will cover the following topics:

  • browsing for information on the Web;

  • searching for information on the Web;

  • using search engines;

  • bookmarking websites;

  • finding images on the Web;

  • how to reference sources.

Some of the material in this section has been drawn from Safari, an interactive website provided by the Open University Library.
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • use search engines confidently to locate information and images on the Web;

  • critically address resources that you locate on the Web;

  • describe some of the processes underlying search engines.


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6.3 Devices for automatic control

Sensors and actuators were mentioned in the introduction to the article, Networked microsensors and the end of the world as we know it, that you read in Section 1. Sensors are devices that measure some physical property – for example, temperature, electrical re
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3.4 Protocols and standards

You have already met the idea of protocols in Section 1 – rules to govern how information is sent, transmitted and received. Protocols can be explained using an analogy with the way people talk to each other. When we talk we don't simply string words together in a random fashion: we have a set of rules (grammar) that determines the order of words and the way sentences are constructed. Understand didn't have other us difficult if it would be quite rules each these for to we. We hope t
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3.2 What does a processor look like?

So what do these devices that are manufactured in such vast quantities look like? Processors are manufactured as integrated circuits. Essentially they are circuits, around the size of a fingernail, which contain many millions of electronic components manufactured as one very complex circuit. Figure 4(a) shows how a processor manufactured as an integrated circuit is packaged so it can be used as a component in an electronic circuit. The pins of the package are connected to the integrated circu
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3.1 Processor statistics

In Sections 3.1 and 3.2 you are going to find out a little more about one of the key components of a computer: the processor, which manipulates data according to a list of instructions called a program.

Here is a mini-quiz which explores some facts about processors.

Question 1

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7.1 Worries about security of credit card and personal data

The Internet is intrinsically an insecure medium (for example, sending an unencrypted email is like sending a postcard through the mail – people equipped with the right equipment might be able to monitor communications that flow across the Net and read their content). So naturally people are concerned about whether to entrust their credit card details to an online store. And on the vendor's side, there is always concern about identity theft – i.e. the problem of knowing whether the person
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6.4 Pictures

It used to be thought that a photograph could provide proof of an event – someone could be caught red-handed by a photograph, as proof of their guilt. ‘The camera never lies’, it was said. If you have a digital camera and have been ‘touching up’ photographs on your home computer you will know that this is far from true now. It is easy to lie with a digital photograph.

The idea that the camera never lies has always been a myth, however. As far back as 1917 the photographs of th
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5.2.1 Microwave

You saw the importance of microwave transmission for newsgathering in the Higgins extract. The term ‘microwave’ identifies a particular range of frequencies used for radio communications. The range of frequencies that are referred to as ‘microwave’ is not exactly defined (or, rather, slightly different ranges are used in different contexts), but roughly speaking it is from about 200 MHz to 50 GHz. [Remember that MHz stands for megahertz, which is 1,000,000 Hz (106 Hz) and G
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5.2 Other transmission media

Wires are still used to carry electrical signals over short distances. At the time of writing, for example, most connections between telephones in private houses and the local telephone exchange still use wires. The telephone networks within office buildings are mostly connected with wires, and so are many computer networks (local area networks, LANs) within single buildings. However, all longer-distance communication, between towns, cities or countries, uses either optical fibre or microwave
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4.4.2 Battery parameters

Now that we have covered some background on electricity, I will return to discussing batteries.

Activity 19

What do you think would be the important characteristics of a battery for a portable ICT device such as a camcorder or a
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4.2.5 Emotions

Emotions can be easily misunderstood when you can't see faces or body language. People may not realise you are joking; irony and satire are easily missed. Smileys or emoticons such as :-) and :-( can be used to express your feelings (look at these sideways). Other possibilities are punctuation (?! #@*!), or , , or even using mock HTML tags such as smileys are stupid.

Remember that many discussion systems only support plain text so you can't rel
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4.2 Netiquette

Work through the following material on ‘netiquette’ and then try the quiz at the end of the section.


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References

Pearson, I. (2004) The Future of Everyday Life in 2010, British Telecommunications plc. [online] www.bt.com/sphere/insights/pearson/everyday.htm, accessed 6 September 2006.
Pragnell, M., Spence, L, and Moore R. (November, 2000) The Market Potential for Smart Homes, N40, Joseph Rowntree Foundation [online], York Publishing Services www.jrf.org.uk/knowledge/findings/housing/n40.asp, accessed 6 Septem
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3 The Unified Process

The Unified Process (UP) (Jacobson et al., 1999) has emerged as a popular iterative and incremental development process for building enterprise systems based on an object-oriented approach. It promotes a set of best practices, namely that development should be organised in short time-boxed iterations, and that it should be adaptive to accommodate inevitable change.

Time boxing means that a (usually) short fixed period of time is devoted to each iteration, e.g. three to fo
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