References

Broham, J. (1996) ‘Postwar development in the Asian NICs: does the neoliberal model fit reality?’, Economic Geography, vol.72, pp. 107–30.
Castree, N., Coe, N.M., Ward, K. and Samers, M. (2004) Spaces of Work: Global Capitalism and Geographies of Labour, London, Sage.

1.3.1 Introduction

Holding up the East Asian success story as the way forward has, as I indicated above, little appeal for the antisweatshop movement. For its members, a different image comes to mind of thousands of workers eking out a living from the numerous sweatshops which dot that part of the world: one that involves the perpetuation of poverty wage levels, the use and abuse of poor communities, and the constant taking advantage of what is ready to hand, followed by withdrawal and abandonment. What they se
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1.2.9 In praise of cheap offshore labour? continued

Significantly, no one from the pro-market lobby is actually denying that sweatshops exist, or trying to cover up the fact that workers in such places have to endure bad working conditions. But, as the subtitle of Krugman's (1997) article suggests: ‘bad jobs at bad wages are better than no jobs at all’. Low as the wages are in the offshore T-shirt or microwave factories compared with those in more developed economies, they tend to be higher than those of other workers around them. The huma
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4.2 Social and political justice

A particularly important set of debates arises in relation to different notions of distributive justice. Do notions of distributive justice apply to the rights of individuals and the acts that they commit, or do they also apply to states of affairs, to the pattern of the results arising from those actions? In the former case, an outcome is just or unjust if it arises from just or unjust actions; whereas in the latter, the principles of justice apply to the pattern of outcomes. This latter not
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand the different interpretations of internationally recognised notions of rights and justice

  • give examples of implementing justice in an international sphere

  • investigate questions in international studies

  • analyse the different agencies of change in the international system.


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3.2.2 The protection of intellectual property: the costs of TRIPS

Apart from the internal redistribution of income resulting from greater exposure to the world economy, the effects of one of the UR agreements in particular have achieved a certain notoriety because the agreement clearly imposes huge costs on farmers and consumers in developing countries, to the benefit of corporations in developed countries. This is the agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which strengthens international rules governing patents, tradema
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Cyborgs and cybernetics
What are cyborgs? Would a cyborg future deliver positive human advances or a Hollywood-style nightmare in which human beings have become a sub-species? Could we one day download our minds? This album gives an insight into the development of cybernetics and how it is used to fuse technology and humanity. The interfaces that communicate between man and machine are developing rapidly and to Prof. Kevin Warwick at Reading University, cyborgs are a technological evolutionary step forward from humans.
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Structural Integrity: Materials Testing
How is safety built into the design of new structures? What sort of tests are used to ascertain the safety of proposed designs? Structural integrity, the study of the safe design and assessment of materials and structures under load, has become crucial in engineering design. Concepts within stress analysis have wide applicability, as there are very few manufactured components and products that do not experience any loading during their life. The tracks on this album demonstrate a selection of
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Water Treatment
Do you think about where your water comes from? In the UK each of us uses an average of about 150 litres of water per day! The seven video tracks in this album consider issues of demand and quality in water supply as well as treatment processes. They give information on methods of minimising waste, emergency water treatment and effluent control. This material forms part of T308 Environmental monitoring, modelling and control.Author(s): The OpenLearn team

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Innovation Design: Sustainable Communities
Can you picture the future in a world without fossil fuels? Perhaps you think that living an "alternative" lifestyle has to mean painful and radical changes to the way you live now. This album looks at various small scale initiatives which show that living sustainably may not be as unpalatable as you might imagine. Bedzed, Findhorn, Hockerton, Samsoe Island; these are all decentralised communities at the forefront of a major social and technological experiment. In our world of finite resources a
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Digital Film School
Have you ever wanted to pick up a video camera and make a short video or film, but felt intimidated by your lack of knowledge? The explosion of film-making for websites and mobiles gives people and organisations the opportunity to tell their stories and show what they have to offer, at low cost. This collection of exciting videos features The Open University’s experienced team of filmmakers, who will show you some of the craft secrets that underpin good filmmaking, and how professionals stay
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Introduction

In this course we examine one factor that very often seems to be found skulking around close to problems and solutions: temperature.

Almost whatever we do, wherever we are, temperature changes. Stay in the same spot and you'll find daytime and night-time temperatures can be markedly different. You may even find significant changes in temperature during the day. When moving you can encounter more rapid variations. For example, an aircraft might leave a tropical runway where the air tempe
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Introduction to forensic engineering
Why do products fail and who finds out why? In this free course, Introduction to forensic engineering, we enter the complex world of forensic engineering and examine how scientists analyse product failure. From investigating a ladder accident to determining the reasons behind the failures in medical products, you will understand how the truth can be established. Author(s): Creator not set

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Theories in Technology Evaluation
This free course, Theories in Technology Evaluation, is devoted to exploring and analysing the theoretical and political nature of evaluation and assessment. It introduces theories and paradigms that play important roles in how we design, conduct and use evaluations and assessments, and deals with the thorny issue of participation in evaluation. Author(s): Creator not set

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5.4 Critical modelling

Critical phenomena are the simplest to model of the three classes of temperature-dependent changes we have been examining. We don't need a power series such as 1 + αT+ βT2+…, nor exponentials such as exp(−Ea/kT). Instead we can describe the behaviour with logical expressions like these:

if T < Tc, then property=subcritical value (or fu
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2.3.2 The project (single) team

The project, or single, team consists of a group of people who come together as a distinct organisational unit in order to work on a project or projects. The team is often led by a project manager, though self-managing and self-organising arrangements are also found. Quite often, a team that has been successful on one project will stay together to work on subsequent projects. This is particularly common where an organisation engages repeatedly in projects of a broadly similar nature – for e
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Conclusion

The building blocks of a basic optical-fibre communications link are the modulated light source, the fibre and the detector. There are choices to be made between different types of light source and fibre, with trade-offs between cost and performance. For example, for high signalling rates over long distances single-mode fibre will be used with a single-mode laser (possibly with external modulation) operating in the 1550 nm window, whereas for short-distance links operating at lower signalling
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4.1 Introduction

Additional material for this unit, by David Chapman, January 2005

The start of optical-fibre communication is generally identified with a paper published in 1966 (Kao and Hockham, 1966). It was not until about ten years later that it was commercially viable, but from then on there was more or less continuous development, with substantial research effort taking place both in industry and universities.

Innovation continues today, and this additional material introduces some o
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1.2 Ethical examples

But is this a tenable position? In other words, is it only the people who use the technologies who carry the ethical burden? Conversely, is ethics of any interest to engineers, programmers and scientists? What, in the first place, constitutes an ethical issue? To begin examining these questions, let's look at some examples.

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3.1 Introduction

The purpose of this section is to address the following interlinked questions:

  • Just what do we mean by business operations?

  • Why is it so important?

  • Where does technology fit in?

I begin answering these questions with a discussion of how best to represent operations activities, making the case for the process view of the organisation. This leads to discussion of the nature and scope of the operations managem
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