References

Albrow, M. (1970) Bureaucracy, London, Pall Mall.
Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, New York, Verso. (First published in 1983.)
Benneworth, P. and Henry, N. (2004) ‘Where is the added value in the cluster approach? Hermeneutic theorising, economic geography and clusters as a multiperspectival approa
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2.1 Three approaches to marketing

This section has been written with the assumption that you have some prior marketing knowledge. As a brief revision you will read how marketing can be described both as an organisation-wide customer-orientated philosophy and as a functional department that handles activities concerned with understanding and satisfying customers’ needs. Studies show a direct link between the success of an organisation and the extent of its market orientation. These marketing concepts are applicable to both f
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4.2 Qualitative v. quantitative data

Accountants do not, traditionally, deal with qualitative data, such as whether a customer was happy or sad, or whether it looked like it would rain when a customer bought an umbrella.

Activity 9

Why do you think accountants do no
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4.4 Job description

From your analysis of the job you can write a job description which will state what the job holder is responsible for and what they are required to do (see Example 1).

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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • list the skills and knowledge needed to conduct full and fair recruitment and selection, and be able to undertake it systematically.


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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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4 Conclusion

Culture is just one perspective that can help us to understand more about a business. In this Unit we saw how the concept of culture developed from research into differences between cultures at a national level. Many cultural elements of a business are not obvious, but there have been some attempts in the academic literature to develop definitions and identify influencing factors. It is possible to see, or ‘feel’, that one business is different from another, and that this involves more th
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References

de Mooj, M. (2003) ‘Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: implications for global advertising’, International Journal of Advertising, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 183–202.
Hofstede, G. (c. 2007a) ‘A summary of my ideas about organizational cultures’ Geert Hofstede's Homepage [online] http://feweb.uvt.nl.center/hofstede/page4.htm (accessed 15 December 2007).
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3.6.1 Saying thank you and acknowledging current contribution

Probably the single most important way of retaining people's support and goodwill is to say thank you promptly and to demonstrate that you have noted and valued whatever it is they have contributed. If you do not have the systems to guarantee that supporters are thanked appropriately, then you cannot seriously expect to move anyone anywhere – be it up a pyramid, into a kite or round a matrix.


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References

Galloway, L. (1998) Principles of Operations Management, ITP.
Hounshell, D. (1984) From the American System to Mass Production, 1800–1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States, Johns Hopkins University Press.
Kanigel, R. (1999) The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency, Viking.

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1.1.3 The intercept

When a line cuts an axis, the line is said ‘to intercept the axis at’ [the particular point]. In this example, the line cuts the vertical (y) axis at £10, so ‘the line intercepts the y axis at £10’. It can also be said that ‘the intercept with the y axis is £10’.


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5.4 The role of brands and branding

Keller (2003) distinguishes between a ‘small-b brand’ as defined by the American Marketing Association:

name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition

(Keller, 2003, p. 3)

and the industry/practitioner definition of ‘a big-B brand’. F
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4.3 Market segmentation and targeting

Market segmentation and targeting is at the core of marketing strategy and consumers (or potential consumers) are the key stakeholder group for both commercial and social marketers. In this section we focus on those specific consumers whose behaviour is the focus of the social marketing activity.

In Section 3.2, the factors which impact
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3.1 Introduction

Andraesen (1995) states that for the social marketer ‘consumer behaviour is the bottom line’ (p. 14). In order to understand how to develop programmes that will bring about behavioural change we need to understand something about the nature of behaviour. The consumer behaviour literature typically borrows from the fields of sociology, psychology and social anthropology amongst others. There is a vast, and growing, body of knowledge on the subject and a few of the main elements will be dis
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1 The Case Study materials

Click here  to access the case study materials.


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9 Summary

This unit has focused on planning a project. At this stage you may find it useful to recap on the learning objectives introduced at the beginning of the unit and to think about some of the issues associated with them.

  1. You should now be able to develop plans with relevant people to achieve the project's goals. This will involve identifying and finding ways of including the appropriate people in the project.

  2. You should be able
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Introduction

This unit will help you to identify and use information in business and management, whether for your work, study or personal purposes. Experiment with some of the key resources in this subject area, and learn about the skills which will enable you to plan searches for information, so you can find what you are looking for more easily. Discover the meaning of information quality, and learn how to evaluate the information you come across. You will also be introduced to the many different ways of
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1.4 Seasoned equity offerings

The issuance of additional shares is called a seasoned or secondary equity offering (SEO). SEOs are common in the London market, but less common in the USA. In some countries, including the UK, one form of SEO is a rights issue. In such issues the existing shareholders are given the right to buy further shares, usually in an amount proportionate to their prevailing holdings. This is known as a pre-emption right.

While rights issues can support the need of a successful comp
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1.3 ‘Going public’

For many companies a point may be reached, particularly if the company has grown significantly in size and has aspirations for further expansion, to seek equity finance through an initial public offering of shares (IPO).

SAQ 4

In a recent
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