2.3.1 Politics

MacLean was a socialist from the age of twelve, and a Marxist by the late 1930s, when he believed that the Soviet Union and the Red Army were the only agents that could defeat Fascism. However, he never joined the Communist Party, and by 1944 events in Poland had thoroughly disillusioned him about Stalin and the Soviet Union. One reason why he could never commit himself fully to Communism seems quite clear: he retained from his Calvinist heritage a deep pessimism about human nature and human
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1.1 British poetry and language

To begin this course, look at the sheet of references linked below. You will see that the list includes books by Sorley MacLean and by two other important Scottish poets, Tom Leonard and Edwin Morgan. Not one title was published in London. None of these writers has ever published a collection of poems in London. Yet the prizewinning work of Edwin Morgan is widely used in Scottish schools, and Sorley MacLean's work has been translated into several foreign languages. By the 1980s, a shift of th
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand what is involved in the study of philosophy

  • offer arguments for and against the main positions discussed in the study of philosophy

  • use philosophical reasoning techniques in a rudimentary way.


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5.5 Quatrains

The following poem is comprised of four quatrains.

Desert places

Snow falling and night falling fast, oh, fast

In a field I looked into going past,

And the ground almost covered smooth in snow,

But a few weeds and stubble showing last.

The woods around it have it – it is theirs.

All animals are smothered in their lairs.

I am too absent-
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5.1 Lines and line-breaks

Poets are skilled at noticing things, and one of the things we should learn to notice is how other poets employ the various devices at their disposal. All poems, even those which don't conform to a pre-existing model or form, use technical elements, even if these may not be immediately apparent. In the next few sections we are going to study, discuss and try out certain technical aspects of poetic writing, starting with lines and line-breaks.

Is something poetry only if it rhymes and ha
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4 Impersonation and imagination

Activity 5

Listen to Track 3, where Jackie Kay, Paul Muldoon and Jean ‘Binta’ Breeze talk about the importance of autobiography to their poems as well as the importance of using the imagination to harness other people'
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • discuss basic philosophical questions concerning language and thought

  • understand problems concerning language and thought and discuss them in a philosophical way.


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Acknowledgements

This course was written by Dr Nigel Warburton

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the
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Influences on accounting regulation
Financial reporting is a complex issue. This free course, Influences on accounting regulation, looks at the historical development of financial regulation and reporting across Europe and the world. You will also examine how both Anglo-Saxon and 'commercial code' accounting have expanded to become the two main accounting systems used today. First pu
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Managing my financial journey
This free course, Managing my financial journey, explores the history of the financial services industry in the UK and its transformation following the global financial crisis. The institutional landscape following the crisis, recent developments to financial products and the regulation of the industry are examined. First published on Mon, 26 Jun 2017 as Author(s): Creator not set

5 Conclusion

Knowledge technologies, as software systems, embody formal models of how the world works: for example, networks between people, what their roles are, how information should flow, rules about interdependences between variables, and how to index and categorise information. If well designed, such models relieve people of mundane activities, allowing them to focus on what they do best: communication, negotiation, creative problem solving: that is, the construction of new shared meaning. At their
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4.18.2 Information visualisation

We read increasingly of the problem of information overload. Earlier, we emphasised the importance of designing appropriate information representations to assist human interpretation in order to create actionable knowledge. Information visualisation is concerned explicitly with designing representations using intuitive visual metaphors and graphics to highlight the most important aspects of information structures and processes. Information visualisation is a rapidly emerg
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3.2 Organisational memory systems

Without a memory, humans are paralysed in the present moment, unable to reflect on lessons learned or to anticipate the future. You will notice that the heading given to the framework in Figure 3 is corporate memory. The whole dynamic system of people and technologies is conceived as constituting an organisation-wide resource that will enable it to become a more intelligent, learning organism, to pursue the anthropomorphic metaphor. The organisational memory challenge goes beyond tradi
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1.5 The problem of power: policy as political

The plural polity that characterises contemporary policy making means that many stakeholders are involved in the policy-action relationship dynamic, from commercial firms, public and non-profit organisations, the professions, central and local government, service delivery organisations, trade unions and the media, to organised groups of the public itself. Viewing policy as political, then, does not mean simply focusing on politicians. Rather, it signifies adopting a stakeholder perspective in
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2.2 Modern history – an evolution

So, what is modern about ‘modern medicine’? Several key scholars – notably Schwartzman (1976), Gambardella (1995), Galambos and Sturchio (1996) and Henderson et al. (1999) – have detected a pattern in the recent development of the industry which may help address this question. According to these scholars, the modern history of the industry can be analysed as an evolutionary process. This may involve changes, which are self-created, or adaptation to discrete technological or institutio
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1.1 Introducing decision-making

A vast literature on decision making stretches back over several centuries and encompasses a wide range of academic disciplines – from history and literature through to mathematics. This course is not a comprehensive survey of this field. Rather, we have chosen a few key topics that will help you to think in broader ways about how you and others take decisions; we shall also introduce you to some themes in social science which have direct relevance to managerial decision making. In particul
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2.5 Summary

In a rapidly changing world, the objects of analysis with which the social sciences are familiar (such as the state and the national economy) no longer seem to operate in the same way and are possibly becoming redundant. New problems and issues are emerging which demand innovation and flexibility.

The jargon of the disciplines in the social sciences can become a barrier to understanding. As a starting-point, you should simply treat terms as labels for sets of assumptions and ideas and c
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2.4 Thinking through the challenges

In addressing the challenges of the social sciences, we have emphasised the ways in which social researchers are themselves located within a particular social and cultural context and that it is worthwhile to consider the implications of this for social science. This leads us to consider if, and how, our own position in society has an impact upon the way that we produce social scientific knowledge. In short, we should consider how much we draw upon our own values, assumptions and identities w
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References

Audit Commission (2000) Another Country. Implementing Dispersal Under the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999, London, Audit Commission for Local Authorities and the National Health Service in England and Wales.
Bloch, A. (2002) Refugees' Opportunities and Barriers in Employment and Training, Department of Work and Pensions Research Report No.179, Norwich, HMSO.
Bloc
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4.2 Introducing surveillance

The videos in this section will introduce you to surveillance as an idea and a practice. The main theme of these videos is how surveillance can be viewed as double-edged: it has both protective and disciplinary aspects to it. This double-edged nature of surveillance is explored through a case study of a shopping mall – the White Rose Centre on the outskirts of Leeds. You will come across a range of different evidence, including interviews with an academic, a policymaker and different users
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