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6.2 Chemical Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation

These regulations were first introduced in 1992 and known as CHIP1, and have since been revised numerous times to keep up with developments in the field of health and safety. The CLP Regulation (EC 1272/2008) came into force on 20th January 2009. The Regulation was implemented in all EU Member States and the United Nations’ Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for classification and labelling. It introduced new classification criteria, hazard symbols (called ‘Hazard Pictograms’)
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5.1 Basic do's and don'ts and lone working

Some basic ‘do's and don'ts’ are:

  • Laboratory coats must be worn at all times.

  • When handling chemicals or sharps (any sharp object that can cause injury, particularly to the hands), observe good laboratory practice by wearing gloves. Latex or nitrile gloves are best, depending on the application.

  • There should be no eating, chewing gum, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics in any laboratory.

  • No pipettin
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4 A new life

There is a common belief that life begins at the moment of conception, i.e. when a sperm fuses with an egg. This is a step forward from past years, when life was alleged to start at the time of ‘quickening’, i.e. when a woman could feel her fetus moving inside her. However, both these opinions suffer from an underlying falsehood: that life ‘begins’ at all. Life is a continuum; gametes are produced by living parents, and fuse to produce new living individuals, but unfused gametes are n
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3.1 Pre-implantation and assymetric division

Let us now return to the Fallopian tube, where a fertilized egg is assembling its chromosomes prior to commencing a series of mitotic divisions which will eventually give rise to the millions of cells that make up the human body. Obviously these millions of cells do not just exist as an amorphous mass: they are differentiated into many different types of cell, and they are organized into recognizable, discrete structures: tissues and organs. This is accomplished by a coordinated sequen
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1.3.7 Factors affecting fertilization

It is useful at this stage to summarize the main factors involved in a successful fertilization. First and foremost, fertile gametes must be made. This depends fundamentally on the health of the prospective parents. If they are diseased or undernourished, or have been exposed to high levels of radiation, then not only will they not produce healthy gametes, but they will probably not want to engage in the kinds of activity that might bring their gametes together.

DNA replication and prot
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1.3.3 Gamete production in men

A sexually mature man is producing sperm all the time at a rate of around 300–600 per gram of testis per second. This provides the 500 million or so which are released at each ejaculation. But the formation of an individual sperm takes about nine weeks (64 days). Sperm are produced in the testes, and production is most efficient at a temperature several degrees lower than the normal body temperature of 371°C. For this reason the testes (plural of testis) are suspended outside the body cavi
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4.2 Coal distribution in the UK and Europe

The UK and Europe were fortunate in having extensive coalfields that powered the Industrial Revolution. Figure 33 shows the distribution of the major Carboniferous mires which became coal-bearing rocks across Europe, either outcropping at the surface or buried beneath younger rocks. The first thing that is evident from this map is th
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3.3 Underground mining

Underground mining operations have four significant environmental impacts — spoil heaps, methane build-up, subsidence and water pollution. Spoil heaps have always been the principal surface feature of underground mining operations. However, legislation and technical advances have brought improvements in modern mines, and the closure of many of the UK's older mines has often been followed by successful rehabilitation of mine sites and spoil heaps by landscaping and tree planting.

Coal
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7.5 Summary of Section 7

  1. Site-directed mutagenesis is an important technique for studying protein function. Using recombinant DNA technology, selected amino acids can be substituted with different residues to alter the structure and function of a protein. One widely used method employs primer extension. SDM studies can help identify residues that are critical for interactions or catalytic activity.

  2. Protein–protein interactions can be studied in a number of different
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7.3.1 Library-based methods for demonstrating an interaction between proteins

As well as the biochemical approaches to studying protein–protein interactions, there is a variety of qualitative methods for screening ‘libraries’ of cloned genes or gene fragments whose protein products might interact with a protein of interest. Such an approach has the advantage that the genes that encode those proteins that bind are available immediately for expression, facilitating subsequent analysis of the protein.

The two-hybrid system uses transcriptional activity
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7.2 Site-directed mutagenesis

The application of site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) to the study of protein function has been illustrated with the enzyme lysozyme, as described previously. SDM is a very powerful technique in the study of protein function, allowing the experimenter to assess the importance of particular amino acid side-chains in a protein. It is most commonly used in the study of enzymes; however, it is also very useful in identifying key residues in protein–protein interactions. In this section, we will co
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2.4.1 Glycosylation

Glycosylation of a protein entails the covalent attachment of carbohydrate groups (typically oligosaccharides) and the resulting modified protein is called a glycoprotein. Covalent attachment of sugar residues to proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. The oligosaccharide chains usually contain less than 15 sugar residues but are very diverse and are often branched. They are linked to the protein component via either the –OH groups of serine and threoni
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2.2 Chaperones help polypeptides to fold

We have seen how steric restrictions and energetic considerations specify preferred polypeptide conformations and ultimately determine a protein's three-dimensional structure. It is possible, of course, that there may be more than one energetically favourable conformation for a polypeptide. This is particularly true for large polypeptides. For a protein with a specific function in the cell, misfolding will affect its activity. Indeed, the misfolded protein may actually have some aberrant unde
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1.3 Protein secondary structure

From our consideration of the steric constraints that apply to peptide bonds and amino acid residues in a polypeptide, we have already begun to discuss some of the factors that determine how the backbone of the polypeptide folds. The conformation adopted by the polypeptide backbone of a protein is referred to as secondary structure. Whilst it is true to say that all proteins have a unique three-dimensional structure or conformation, specified by the nature and sequence of their amino a
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • define and use each of the terms printed in bold in the text

  • describe the different levels of protein structure and their interdependence

  • explain how steric limitations determine secondary structure in polypeptides

  • describe, using examples, the relationship between protein structure and function

  • understand the significance of domains in protein function and how they hav
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3.3.2 Phospholipase C (PLC)

Members of this family of enzymes contain two catalytic domains and several protein binding domains (Figure 13). The PH domain can temporarily tether phospholipase C to the membrane by attachment mainly to PI(3,4)P2.

We shall discuss two main isoforms of PLC: PLC-β, which is activated by a subset of trimeric G proteins (Gαq a
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3.1 Introduction

We are now ready to describe in detail the major intracellular signalling pathways responsible for relaying the signal from the surface receptor to evoke a cellular response. This section will deal with signalling molecules that operate at the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane (trimeric G proteins, monomeric G proteins and lipid-modifying enzymes), second messengers (such as Ca2+, cAMP, cGMP), protein kinases and phosphatases, and finally transcription factors.


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2.2 Receptor specificity

Binding of an extracellular signal to its receptor involves the same type of interactions as those between an enzyme and its substrate. Receptor specificity depends on the binding affinity between the ligand and the binding site on the receptor. The dissociation constant (KD) describes the affinity between receptors and their ligands.

Proteins can be thought of as consisting of various domains, and the different combinations of structural motifs in the extracellular re
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1.8 Protein–protein interactions in signal transduction

Many signalling proteins have both a catalytic domain and sometimes several binding domains.Some only have binding domains, enabling their proteins to act as adaptor, scaffold or anchoring proteins to bring other proteins together. Because of this multiplicity of binding domains, signalling proteins can potentially combine to form complexes with many other proteins; these complexes may be either transient (e.g. in response to stimulation by a growth factor), or stable (to target a protein to
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7.2 Free-free radiation

The blackbody spectrum is emitted when thermally emitting matter is optically thick. Optically thin matter can also emit thermal radiation. Whenever a charged particle is accelerated it emits electromagnetic radiation. When the acceleration is due to the electric field of another charged particle the emitted radiation is called free-free emission or bremsstrahlung. (Bremsstrahlung is a German word meaning ‘braking radiation’.) The radiation emitted by an optically thin, ther
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