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7.2 Operating systems

You have already seen that operating systems organise the sharing of resources. But they do much more than this; they ensure the efficient running of a computer by:

  • loading application programs from secondary memory into main memory and managing their execution;

  • supporting application programs by managing their use of the computer's resources;

  • managing the storage of programs and data in secondary memory;


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7.1 Introduction

Earlier on I indicated that in order for a processor to perform a defined function it needs to be supplied with a list of instructions called a program. In this section I shall explore this idea a little further.

Software can be split into two categories, application software and operating systems. Application software is the name given to programs which enable a computer to perform specific tasks. The program that processes the image in the digital camera is one example; a word
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1 Computers and processors: introduction

Computers have become a vital part of everyday life. It is almost inconceivable that you could spend a day without at least one event being influenced by a computer. Perhaps the word ‘computer’ automatically conjures up the image of a personal computer sitting on a desk, but in fact it is the computers you cannot see that influence your life the most. Typical examples of common products that may use these ‘invisible’ computers are:

  • cars


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Introduction

There is more to computers and processors than simply PCs. In fact computers are ubiquitous in everyday life. This unit challenges how we view computers through the examples of processors in kitchen scales and digital cameras, as well as a work of art that, at heart, is a computer.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Computers and processors (T224) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore ot
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5.1 Transmission of electrical signals on wires

In the discussions of newsgathering in the Taylor and Higgins papers, you saw the significance of the development of systems that allowed long-distance transmission of electronic signals. Initially transmission used metallic wires (remember Taylor's reference to the importance of the ‘lines infrastructure’ and his mention of the ‘wire picture’) and later wireless transmission (terrestrial and satellite microwave) became important. In this section I shall look at some aspects of the tr
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Learning outcomes

By the time you have completed this unit you should:

  • know the meaning of all the terms highlighted in the text;

  • understand the concept of the ‘network society’;

  • have an awareness of how ICTs impact on your everyday life.


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References

Michael Jackson, Software Requirements & Specifications, Addison-Wesley, 1995. ISBN 0–201–87712–0.
Suzanne Robertson and James Robertson, Mastering the Requirements Process, Addison-Wesley, second edition, 2006. ISBN 0–321–41949–9

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5.1 Introduction

The final approach to developing distributed systems is based on a radical view of such systems. The approach is based on work carried out by two American academics, Nicolas Carriero and David Gelerntner. These two academics developed a language known as Linda in the 1980s. The language, and its associated technology, has always been thought of highly by other academics within the distributed systems area, but has never taken off in terms of commercial use. However, in the late 1990s Sun deve
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • describe some of the architectural and programming paradigms used in distributed system development;

  • describe message passing and the role of protocols within a message passing paradigm;

  • introduce the concept of a distributed object;

  • describe how event-based architectures are used within distributed system development;

  • introduce one implementation of an event-based archite
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7.2.15 E-learning

This term is used to describe companies or organisations who offer educational courses via the web. The quality and features found in sites which can be described by this business model can vary. At its simplest such sites offer students the ability to download conventional texts. More complex instantiations of the model offer the students facilities to read individual lessons, try out online multiple choice questions and experience simulations relevant to the topic being taught.


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7.2.13 Online trading

This business model encompasses the trading of financial instruments such as bonds and stocks via the internet. Online trading has been a feature of the financial industry for some time. However, it was carried out using internal networks. The internet has enabled the individual user to trade stocks and shares from home and has given rise to the term day trading.


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Top 25 Japanese Questions You Need to Know #24 - Have you been to Tokyo? in Japanese
Learn Japanese with JapanesePod101.com! Another day, another train delay in Japan. As you wait on the platform, you strike up a Japanese conversation with a fellow passenger. He has a lot of interesting travel stories—this day suddenly got much better! In this lesson, you will learn the question Have you been to Tokyo? in Japanese and [...]
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Rights not set

3.2 FTP

The acronym FTP stands for the File Transfer Protocol. It provides the facility whereby files can be downloaded into a computer from another computer in the internet. Although there are a number of utilities for file transfer most users now employ browsers for this via FTP links.

There are a number of utilities which enable you to load anything from clip art to the latest updates for operating systems. Many of these utilities are very primitive: they use a simple command line int
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2.7 Other commercial websites

So far I have detailed e-commerce applications which are connected with very large organisations; to conclude this section it is worth looking at a number of smaller applications, many of which are distinguished by the fact that they are novel. They are in contrast to the applications discussed in previous subsections which mainly consist of standard functions such as order processing.

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3.5 Summary

This section examined how human beings obtain data in the first place, by turning sensory data into something that can be communicated and reasoned about.

We ‘code’ this data using signs and symbols that are agreed within a community.

The section explored, again, the distinction between data and information, and noted that one person's data could be another's information.

It went on to describe how humans invented computers because we have a compelli
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2.2 The organisation: loyalty cards

Many supermarkets and other firms (such as petrol companies and airlines) use loyalty cards: cards that offer a customer some form of incentive, such as a future discount or gift, to continue buying from that firm. For example, the British supermarket chain Tesco issues such cards. The holder of a loyalty card is regularly sent vouchers which give the holder discounts from their shopping bills and also vouchers which enable them to gain a discount on items that the supermarket wishes to promo
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2.1.2 Data and information

So far, I have used two words in connection with computers: data and information. Did you see any differences in the way the two terms have been used? Let me point out one.

Data refers to discrete items, such as the price of an item on the shelf of a supermarket, or the type of product listed on a sign over a supermarket aisle. The word ‘data’ is a plural Latin word but it is generally used as a singular word in English.

In contrast, information involves linking
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2.1.1 A day in my life

I wake to a radio-alarm. It's controlled by a small computer that lets me set the time I want to wake up and the radio programme that will wake me.

I prepare breakfast on a cooker which has a small computer that controls the clock, timer, and other functions such as oven temperature.

I take my dog for a walk. She has a ‘microchip’ (i.e. a very small simple computer) implanted under her skin that will enable her to be traced if she is lost or stolen.

I take my son to his
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • identify some of the instances in daily life where a computer is, or is likely to be, involved;

  • given a simple scenario, list most of the obvious information or data required by the parties in that scenario, and give some examples of how the information or data might be used;

  • explain briefly what perceptual data is, and how it is turned into a form that can be used by a person for reasoning or by a co
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Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Data, computing and information (M150) which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.

Computers are used to find, store, process and share data and information. The World Wide Web is an example
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