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1.3.7 Factors affecting fertilization

It is useful at this stage to summarize the main factors involved in a successful fertilization. First and foremost, fertile gametes must be made. This depends fundamentally on the health of the prospective parents. If they are diseased or undernourished, or have been exposed to high levels of radiation, then not only will they not produce healthy gametes, but they will probably not want to engage in the kinds of activity that might bring their gametes together.

DNA replication and prot
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7 Aquifers

A layer of rock that is sufficiently porous to store water, and permeable enough to allow water to flow through it, is called an aquifer. Consolidated porous and permeable rocks, for example, sandstone and limestone, can form important and extensive aquifers (e.g. Figure 15). Unconsolidated sands and gravels may also be good
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • use information from wells, the topography of the ground and a water table contour map, to carry out the following: interpret cross-sections, calculate the thickness of the unsaturated zone, and the rate of groundwater flow; deduce the direction in which groundwater is flowing; and estimate the depth to the saline interface in a coastal area from the height of the water table

  • list the types of rock that usually ma
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4.4 Coal in the European Union

The EU's coal reserves in 2004, after enlargement to 25 member states, stood at 100 × 109 t. Table 3 shows the eight European Union Member States with the most significant reserves ranked in order of greatest tonnage. With a little over 100 × 10 9 t of coal of all ranks, the EU possesses approxima
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Science. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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7.4 Proteomics

Traditionally, the study of the biochemistry or structure of a protein necessitated its purification to a high degree. The development of protocols for cloning, manipulation and expression of genes greatly facilitated this kind of study, as will be clear to you from the previous section. In recent years, a number of high-throughput techniques have, to an extent, obviated traditional approaches and permit simultaneous analysis of all the expressed proteins in a cell or organism, known as the <
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6.4 Carboxypeptidase A

Carboxypeptidase A is a protease that hydrolyses the C-terminal peptide bond in polypeptide chains. Whilst this enzyme demonstrates strict specificity with regard to the position of the amide bond (i.e. it must be C-terminal), it does not discriminate on the basis of the identity of the terminal residue; in fact, it will cleave off any residue with the exception of arginine (Arg), lysine (Lys) or proline (Pro). However, carboxypeptidase A is most efficient at removing terminal residues with a
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1.5 Quaternary structure

This level of protein structure applies only to those proteins that consist of more than one polypeptide chain, termed subunits. In such proteins, sometimes referred to as multisubunit proteins, the same kinds of non-covalent interaction that stabilise the folded polypeptides also specify the assembly of complexes of subunits. Quaternary structure refers to the way in which the subunits of such proteins are assembled in the finished protein.

Multisubunit proteins can have a numbe
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1.3 Protein secondary structure

From our consideration of the steric constraints that apply to peptide bonds and amino acid residues in a polypeptide, we have already begun to discuss some of the factors that determine how the backbone of the polypeptide folds. The conformation adopted by the polypeptide backbone of a protein is referred to as secondary structure. Whilst it is true to say that all proteins have a unique three-dimensional structure or conformation, specified by the nature and sequence of their amino a
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3.6.1 The MAP kinase pathway

The MAP kinase pathway is so called because the last component of the pathway was originally identified as a kinase activity in EGF-stimulated cells – hence the name ‘mitogen-activated protein kinase’ (MAP kinase), as it stimulates cell growth and proliferation.

  • What is the mechanism of activation of the EGF receptor?

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1.7 Localization of signalling proteins

Since signalling proteins cannot diffuse as rapidly as small second messengers, they need be close to their downstream target in order to be able to function. Where they are located with respect to both their subcellular position and their immediate neighbours is therefore vitally important. The plasma membrane is usually the initial location, and proteins can be attached to the plasma membrane in various ways (Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

iSpot is provided by The Open University as part of OPAL, which is funded by the National Lottery through the Big Lottery Fund.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see Author(s): The Open University

7.3 Polarization of electromagnetic radiation

So far we have described electromagnetic radiation in terms of its wavelength, frequency and speed. It has another, sometimes important, property: polarization. Figure 10 shows the electric and magnetic field in a plane-polarized electromagnetic wave. In any electromagnetic radiation, the electric an
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3.5 Example 1

(a) A gravitationally bound uniform density sphere, of radius r, is composed of a large number of subelements, with total mass M. Use the virial theorem,

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1 Evolution versus creation: science and non-science

Science aims to extend our understanding of natural phenomena through testing of explanatory hypotheses by reference to hard evidence. It is not concerned with ideas that cannot be tested in this way, such as subjective opinions (for example, what is good or evil, beautiful or ugly) or religious beliefs (about, say, 'the meaning of life' and the existence of gods or spirits), though we will return to ideas like this at the end of this free course. The remit of science was eloquently summarise
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6.1 Introduction

Approximately 150 million people worldwide have diabetes, of which 90 per cent have Type 2 diabetes. The incidence of the condition is rapidly increasing. In western countries about 10 per cent of people over the age of 65 years have diabetes. In the UK it is thought that there are between 765 000 and 1 million people with undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes, that is, 29–36 per cent of the total with diabetes (Watkins, 2003). These undiagnosed numbers are based on population samples where everyone
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1.6 Clades and reptiles

SAQ 5

Are the reptiles a proper clade?

Answer

No, because despite the reptiles being derived from a common ancestor, two descendent groups – the bi
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2.7 … and becoming more intelligent

Intelligence is a useful commodity: it can help an animal to make sense of its environment and cope with the demands of social behaviour (including courtship and competition). Hunters tend to be relatively intelligent, and otters, pinnipeds and cetaceans, for example, share a playful curiosity that is characteristic of animals that catch other animals for a living. Some especially extravagant claims have been made for the intelligence of the toothed whales, largely because these animals use c
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2 The biology of prions

The increasing interest in kuru during the 1950s and 1960s had the effect of stimulating research into TSEs in humans and other animals.

Question 6

Summarise, in general terms, the possible causes of disease in animals.
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