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8 Where do the ideas for an Act of Parliament come from?

Ideas for an Act of Parliament can come from many sources. You have explored the different types of Bills that exist, and been introduced to the idea that laws need to respond to social and political change. The list that follows is not exhaustive, but is intended to provide an illustration of the range of bodies interested in law and changes in the law.

Political party manifestos

Party manifestos and pre-election promises are influenced by what politicians believe the publ
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6.3 Procedure by which Bills become law

In order to become an Act of Parliament, a Bill will have to be passed by both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. A Bill may start in either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, with the exception of Finance Bills, which always start in the House of Commons. A Finance Bill is introduced by the Government shortly after the Budget to bring the Government's tax proposals into law.

Before the Bill can become an Act of Parliament it must undergo a number of stages.


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2.1 The meaning of formal rules

In this part, we will develop our understanding of rules further. So far we have concentrated on social rules. We looked at what is meant by this, at the way such rules develop, at the conflicts which may arise between groups operating under different social rule systems, and at what happens when such rules are broken. Here, we are going to explore rules which are more formal in nature. By this I mean rules which – instead of being the product of shared understanding and practice – are se
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References

Anderson, S., Murray, L. and Maharg, P. (2003) ‘Minority and social diversity in legal education’, Edinburgh, Scottish Executive Social Research.
Bichard, M. (2004) The Bichard Inquiry Report, London, The Stationery Office.
Braye, S. and Preston-Shoot, M. with Cull, L.-A., Johns, R. and Roche, J. (2005) Teaching, Learning and Assessment of Law in Social Work Ed
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1 Unit overview

This unit will look at the concept of rights in their broadest sense:

  • a freedom to do or be protected from something;

  • a claim to do or enjoy something;

  • a power to do something which affects others and not to be challenged over that use of power.

This concept of rights defines the position of an individual and does not consider collective or majority rights. As you may already know, the subject of righ
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5.1 Unity and diversity

The development of a new Europe in the early twenty-first century relates to four main themes that were introduced at the beginning of this course: unity and diversity, conflict and consensus, tradition and transformation, and inclusion and exclusion.

The striking differences that emerged within Europe (cultural, linguistic, political) have long been associated with the existence of a common framework within which the different parts of Europe were able to develop productively and sust
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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LR - Select, Rate and Prioritize your Images
Find out which method of tagging images works best for the photography you do, and simplify the creation of collections of images.
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Introduction

This free course has two aims: firstly, to help you read and interpret information in the form of diagrams, charts and graphs, and secondly, to give you practice in producing such diagrams yourself.

To start you will deal with interpreting and drawing diagrams to a particular scale. You will then learn to extract information from tables and charts. Finally you will learn to draw graphs using coordinate axes, which is a very important mathematical technique.

This OpenLearn course p
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3.18.1 Try some yourself

Evaluate each of the following and give an example from everyday life to illustrate the sum (e.g. Thomas's piggy bank).

  • (a) 4 − 2

  • (b) −3 − 5

<
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3.17 Subtraction of negative numbers

Next consider subtraction of a negative number. In terms of Thomas’s piggy bank, subtracting a negative number is the same as taking away one of his IOUs. If his mother says ‘you have been a good boy today so I’ll take away that IOU for £3’ this is equivalent to him being given £3.

So, − (3) = 3. Does this correspond with the number line interpretation of subtracting a negative number?

Consider the evaluation of 8 − 3. Continue to think o
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3.8 Multiplying and dividing with decimals

Multiplication and division of decimal numbers are carried out just as with whole numbers, except that now you can carry out the division even when one number does not divide exactly into the other. You also need to take care about the position of the decimal point. So check your answer is sensible.

Example 18

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3.4.1 Try some yourself

Activity 28

Look at the rules in the boxes above.

Write in your own words the rules for multiplying and dividing, adding and subtracting two numbers, giving an example of each.

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Try some yourself

Activity 23

Candles are sold in boxes of 40. How many candles are there in 30 boxes?

Answer

One box has 40 candles.

10 boxes have 40 ×
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3.2 Multiplying and dividing

To multiply and divide by 10, 100, 1000, etc., write the digits in their place value columns. To multiply, move the digits to the left (replacing the numbers on the right with zeros) and to divide move them to the right (putting in a decimal point, and any zeros necessary for the place value).

Multiplication and division by whole numbers in general can be carried out by combining this technique with a knowledge of the multiplication tables up to 10.

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2.6.1 Try some yourself

Activity 20

Place the following masses in order, with the lightest first:

  2125 mg   1.9 g   0.02 kg

Answer

To compare these m
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2.6 Comparing measurements

In order to compare quantities, it is best to express them in the same units.

Example 10

Three children have just measured their own heights in metric units. Isaac says ‘My height is 1098’, Jasmine says ‘My height is 112’ and Kim says ‘Mine is 1.1’. What units were
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2.5 Measuring capacity

The basic metric unit for capacity is the litre, usually denoted by the symbol l (though sometimes an uppercase L is used to avoid confusion with the number 1).

In the SI system, units such as cubic metres (m3), cubic centimetres (cm3) and cubic millimetres (mm3) are used. These two systems are linked because:

1 ml = 1 cm3

The animation below i
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2.4 Measuring length

The basic SI unit for length is the metre, abbreviation m.

The animation below illustrates how to convert between the most commonly used units of length, kilometres (km); metres (m); centimetres (cm); millimetres (mm) and micrometres (μm).

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1.2.2 Try some yourself

1 Can you answer the following questions:

  • (a) Write ‘twenty thousand one hundred and forty-four’ as a number.

  • (b) Say (or write) the number 31 002 103 in words.


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