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1.1.7 Using the memory buttons

Calculations involving several operations can also be carried out in stages. One way to do this is to use the '=' key part way through the calculation. You can also use the calculator's memory.

The Windows calculator has a number of memory buttons, shown in Figure 2, to help yo
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1.1.3 Keeping the calculator running on your Windows desktop

When performing a number of calculations whilst using other programs on your computer, it's convenient to keep the calculator running in the background.

To do this click on the 'Minimise' button of the calculator's window (the leftmost button in the top right corner). When you are ready to start working with the calculator again, click the 'Calculator' button in the Windows taskbar. (The taskbar is usually at the bottom of the screen; it contains the 'Start' button.)


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5.1.4 How do I draw a bar chart?

First, you need to decide what it is you want your chart to illustrate. This may be governed by the data you have access to or you might need to collect the data yourself. Then the process is as below.

  1. Decide on a clear title.

    The title should be a brief description of the data that you want to show.

  2. Identify how many bars are needed.

    The bars correspond to the number of categories you have. For instance, if you are look
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1 Getting the most from charts, graphs and tables

Do you sometimes feel confused about how to create a chart, graph or table?

Are you not always sure which of these to choose to illustrate your set of data?

Why do we produce charts, graphs and tables anyway?

Spend a few minutes writing down what you think are the reasons why we choose to present data in this way before you read on.

One student has said:

If an exam or assessment question ask
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7.2 Brushing up on your computer skills

If you want to brush up on your computer skills, you may find the following websites useful.

The OpenLearn Web Guide (accessed 8 November 2006) offers a brief guide to making effective use of the web.

SAFARI (Skills in accessing, finding and reviewing information) (accessed 8 November 2006) is an online course provided by the Open University and aims to help you improve your information skills.

The Absolute Beginners' Guide to Using Your Computer (acces
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3.2 Email

Email involves sending an electronic message from your private mailbox to one or more named individuals. You can do this from any computer, whether you're at home or elsewhere.

While it's quick and easy to send an email, don't expect an immediate reply. Although some people have constant access to their email, many others log in occasionally. Email is often a convenient way to contact your tutor, so be sure to add their address to your electronic address book!

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4 Conclusion

This course has given you a good many tips about what is useful and what things to avoid. These tips are just the beginning of the practical ‘know-how’ you'll develop once you've begun your MST study. Some of the skills you'll learn will be specific to the particular subjects you're studying – biologists have different diagrammatic ‘tools of the trade’ from mathematicians, computer enthusiasts and physicists. Other, more general skills will be central to actually studying and to ref
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5.1.10 Philosophy

Flew, A. (ed.) (1979) A Dictionary of Philosophy, London, Pan Books.

Bunnin, N., and Tsui-James, E.P.> (eds) (1996) The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy, Oxford, Blackwell.


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2.6.3 Re-working Hansa's essay

Now we have looked at Philip's and Hansa's essays in such detail, what have we learned? Perhaps the best way to answer that is to write another version of the essay, building on all the things we have discussed. In fact, I have taken the basic content of Hansa's essay, tidied it up and shuffled it about a little to bring out her argument more strongly. (However this is not the only possible way of structuring an argument in answer to this question.) I have also woven in some of Ellis's terms,
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1.3.2 Stages in reading qualitative evidence

As with numbers, we need to approach qualitative evidence systematically and with purpose, and not just assume we know what it means.


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1.2.5 Stage 3: Details

Examine in more detail the explanations surrounding the numbers or diagram. Check the small print to make sure you aren't drawing the wrong conclusions. Are the axes of diagrams clearly labelled, and do you understand what they mean? (Axes, pronounced ‘axease’ is the plural of axis. Axes are the vertical and horizontal lines against which lines on a graph or bars on a chart are plotted. They must be labelled to tell you what units you are counting in.) If there is shading on the di
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1.2.4 Stage 2: Find a way in

It's easy to be distracted by the surface appearance of a diagram, but we are really interested in the underlying message. This is rather like the distinction made between the content and context reading of photographs. Once you are sure that you know what the main heading means, focus on a particular element and think it through. If it is a bar chart, for instance, pick on one of the bars and tell yourself what it represents, what it is telling you. Is it showing a percentage or a total? Wha
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Exploring Psychology
How humans think, develop, and experience the world around us has been fascinating psychologists for over 100 years. The tracks in this album cover a range of case studies, looking at factors which can influence the development of our personalities. What is the impact of significant people in our early lives? How do you go about the process of researching topics like this in social psychology? The audio tracks feature disabled people who reflect on how disability has affected their sense of ide
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

5.2 The effects of brain damage

Before the advent of ‘brain mapping’, such as by fMRI, it was nevertheless possible to discover something of the part played by different regions of the brain, by observing the problems resulting from brain damage (such as following a stroke). One such area was mentioned in Section 3.2 – the parietal lobe. Damage to a single lobe (there is one on
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2.4 Rapid serial visual presentation

It has been known for a long time that backward masking can act in one of two ways: integration and interruption (Turvey, 1973). When the SOA between target and mask is very short, integration occurs; that is, the two items are perceived as one, with the result that the target is difficult to report, just as when one word is written over another. Of more interest is masking by interruption, which is the type we have been considering in the previous section. It occurs at longer S
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Acknowledgements

This free course is an adapted extract from the course DSE212 Exploring psychology, which is currently out of presentation.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerc
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3.4.1 Pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals?

Nutraceuticals refers to the use of food supplements or herbal remedies for health purposes. For example, certain ingredients of the herb St John's Wort can be as effective in managing depression as conventional anti-depressants, with fewer negative side effects (Greeson et al., 2001). However, research also shows that this supplement can interact negatively with some commonly prescribed drugs, such as the contraceptive pill. This highlights the need for:


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3.5.2 Pre-post test studies

Another method for evaluating the effectiveness of a therapy is to use a pre-post test design. This is where a group of people is assessed before and after a programme of intervention. Ideally, these people would be matched to a control group who are also tested twice, but do not receive the same (or any) intervention during that period. However, as with randomised controlled trials, there are ethical issues if it becomes clear that the intervention is having an adverse affect on the e
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2.2.3 ‘Automaticity’ and ‘rate of processing’ hypotheses

A proposal that attempts to address the broader picture of dyslexic functioning is that dyslexia may be caused by problems in the automatisation of skills. The concept of automatisation refers to the gradual reduction in the need for conscious control as a new skill is learned. This leads to greater speed and efficiency and a decreased likelihood of breakdown of performance under stress, as well as the ability to perform a second task at the same time with minimal disruption to
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3.6 Reflecting on dyslexia

Throughout this course, dyslexia has been evaluated as an example of ‘abnormality’, a difficulty, a problem in need of an intervention. However, research has shown that some adults with dyslexia are distinctive, not just in their difficulties, but also in their increased levels of creative reasoning compared to ‘normal’ people (Everatt 1997). West (1997) reports that Nicholas Negroponte, the founding member of the Media Lab at the world renowned Massachusetts Institute of Technolog
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