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6.5 More about actors

In the hotel example, you saw two actors in the use case diagram shown in Figure 3 (reproduced below). Why is the actor Guest associated with the use case for making a reservation but not associated with the use cases for checking in and out? The answer comes from an understanding of what happens when someone, a guest, arrives at a hotel. Hotels are service oriented. That is to say, they offer certain services to their guests with the intention of earning money for the business. A hote
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7.2.2 E-auction

This model describes sites which electronically simulate the bidding process in a conventional physical auction. Such sites can range in sophistication from those which present a simple catalogue of items to those which offer multimedia presentations. Most sites which are described by this business model are concerned with selling items to individual consumers. However, there are an increasing number of sites which provide facilities for businesses to auction products to other businesses.


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7.1 What is a business model?

The aim of this section is to look at some of the business models which have been used to drive internet applications. A business model is a high-level description of an application type which contains all the common features which can be found in specific examples of the model. For example, one of the most popular business models is the e-shop which describes a website that sells products. The model is general in that it does not describe the item that is sold or the mechanisms that a
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6.3 The architecture

The architecture of the system is shown in Figure 4. It consists of a number of components. The most important of these is the web server. This communicates with browsers used by customers.

There are two other computers that are used in the system which are directly connected to the web server: a mail server which sends and receives mail from customers and a mailing list server which administers the mailing lists of customers and their interests. Both these servers communicate with the
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Literary Festival 2016: The Future City: cruel or consoling Utopia? [Audio]
Speaker(s): Darran Anderson, Dr Matthew Beaumont, Professor Rachel Cooper | The Future City, as an idea that often relies upon Utopian thinking to sustain itself, can be as cruel as it is consoling. Even as it makes possible investment into urban space as a site of future fulfilment, it regularly fails to deliver upon this promise. This panel asks what futures such Utopian thinking makes available for the city and what present realities it denies? It will query more specifically the Utopias that
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4.1.1 Space problems

Probably the best known of these is the fact that the internet is running out of space for identifying computers. Each computer in a network needs to be identified by a unique data pattern known as an IP address. The current technology used to transport data around the internet is such that in the comparatively near future we shall run out of space to hold these unique addresses. Happily this is a problem that has been identified and groups of researchers around the globe have developed new t
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3.5 Mailing lists

Mailing lists are groups of users who have some interest in common, for example they may all be network professionals. Such a list is used by organisations or individuals to inform the members of topics of interest to them. For example, my local cinema has a mailing list of cinema goers who have bought season tickets. It emails everyone on the list with the titles of those films which are to be shown in the coming week and notifies them of any special ticket offers. While there are many uses
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4.2 Security and privacy

The internet is not a particularly secure place. There are two aspects to this: the first is that information is widely published throughout the internet which can be used for criminal and near-criminal activities. The second aspect is that since the internet is an open system, details of its underlying technologies are freely available to anybody. This means that the way data passes through the internet is in the public domain; the consequence of this is that, theoretically, anyone with the
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4.1.1 Identifying the pregnacy

Our description of the developing embryo has, so to speak, detached it from its mother. But we should remember that on the other end of the placenta is a woman whose reaction to her pregnancy may lie almost anywhere in the scale of human emotion, and whose behaviour during her pregnancy will have an enormous effect on its outcome. This section attempts to look at the pregnancy from the mother's point of view. Of course, it cannot possibly be applicable to all women in all pregna
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1.1 Introduction

In this course we look at an outline of the stages involved in the development of a database. We consider the broader issue of how to decide what should be in a database and how to structure the tables that should be included. Our aim is to give you a basic development method so that you can see how a basic database system is developed. We don't argue that this specific method is the most applicable to any given situation – however, we do consider that this method is straightforward and wil
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7.1 What have you learnt in this unit?

This unit began by exploring some basic issues involving computers:

  • the nature of data and information;

  • why human beings need (and want) computers;

  • the prevalence of computers in modern life.

The unit looked briefly at how a computer-based society affects the average person who (whether he or she knows it or not) has a persona that consists of data about them held by many diverse organisations.

Much o
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6.3 Summary

This section examined how computers can be used to control machines. It used the household washing machine as a case study and explored how the microcomputer contained in such a machine is programmed to:

  • provide an interface for the user to operate the machine;

  • control the way the machine carries out the operations chosen by the user.

The washing machine case study also illustrated the necessity of building safety feature
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6.2.3 Security: are my credit card details safe?

Many people now shop regularly on the web. However, many others don't because they fear that an unscrupulous person could obtain their credit card details. They also fear that if they provide their names and addresses to a firm on the web, they will be bombarded with junk mail (or its electronic equivalent, junk email). Some worry that, since anyone can put up a website, the seller may be bogus and no goods will appear after the sale has been completed or won't be as advertised.

Consequ
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6.2.2 Database servers

To be able to search a website like Lakeland's requires not only a web server but a database server. Like a web server, a database server is a computer that responds to requests from other computers. Its task is to find and extract data from a database.

The web and database servers form part of a distributed system. This means that separate computers exchange data and information across a network (in this case the internet) to produce results for a user. For
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6.2.1 Using a sales website

A visitor to a sales website is usually able to:

  • browse through the details of the goods for sale;

  • search for a particular product;

  • check on the availability of goods;

  • read reviews of the products by other purchasers;

  • register to receive newsletters which detail new items of interest;

  • buy products using credit or debit cards, and in some cases, other payment methods such as cheq
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9.1 Overview

There are over 139,000 social service workers in Scotland, providing care and support to some of the most vulnerable sections of society. The Scottish Social Services Council is responsible for specifying the standards to which social service workers involved in providing or delivering social work, social care services, early education and child care will work.

In this section of the OpenLearn Scotland collection, we look at issues relating to social care by focusing on three particular
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6.1.4 Controlling the machine

The major task of a washing machine microcomputer is to control the actions of the machine in accordance with the wash programme selected. To do this, the computer is electrically attached to a variety of:

  • actuators that cause mechanical parts of the system to work;

  • sensors that sense the state of some aspect of the machine, such as water temperature.

There is an actuator to open or close the water input val
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6.1.3 Ensuring safety

Ensuring that a user can't choose a wash temperature that's too hot for the ‘hand wash’ programme is an example of ensuring safety. In other words, the washing machine microcomputer is trying to prevent the user making choices that are not sensible. Of course, I could put a load of delicate washing in and choose the ‘cotton’ programme which has a temperature of 90°C. The computer program controlling the machine has no way of knowing that I've put silks or woollens in and not c
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6.1.2 Choosing programmes and parameters

Another part of the interface shown in Figure 15 allows the user to select one from a variety of predetermined washing programmes, and to change some of the parameters. If I choose the ‘cotton’ programme, for example, the microcomputer's program assumes that I wish to wash this load of laundry at 60°C, use the main wash programme, and spin the washing at the highest speed. Sometimes this programme is fine, but at other times I may want to select the higher temperature of 90°C in order,
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6.1.1 The user interface

An interface to a washing machine does not need to be like the interface to a personal computer (a user interface is a display/control panel that enables the user to control a machine or interact with a program). It is specific to the task of washing laundry, which involves two things:

  1. displaying the choices that relate to washing laundry (such as type of laundry to be washed, water temperature, and spin speed);

  2. displaying some indicatio
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