This course introduced the varied components that you will use to learn mathematics: a calculator, reader articles, audio and video clips. You have mainly been working from this course's text and the Calculator Book.

A number of activities involved communicating your ideas: the meaning of mathematical terms; where you can â€˜seeâ€™ mathematics in everyday settings; reviewing how you have studied this material. Writing is one aspect of communication which is central to learning. S
Author(s): The Open University

After studying this course, you should be able to:

• Give an opinion of what mathematics is

• recognise different types of written mathematics

• tackle mathematical problems using a calculator , demonstrating an understanding for basic arithmetic, percentages, square roots, reciprocals and powers

• express and interpret numbers in scientific notation, both in writing and with the use of a calculator

• give some examples of common
Author(s): The Open University

Section 5 contains solutions to the exercises that appear throughout sections 1-4.

Click the link below to open the solutions (13 pages, 500KB).

Section 5

Author(s): The Open University

In Section 1 we discuss the idea of a set and describe some ways to define sets. We illustrate our discussion with sets of numbers and with geometrical sets of points in the plane. We also explain how to check whether two given sets are equal and whether one set is a subset of another. Finally, we introduce the set operations of union, intersection and difference.

Click the link below to open Section 1 (16 pages, 389KB).

Author(s): The Open University

Working in mathematics education involves a sense of both past and future, and how the two combine to influence the present. It may seem that, because the past has already happened, it cannot be altered; however, you can alter how you perceive the past, and what lessons you take from it. Each of us has a personal past in mathematics educationâ€”the particular events of our personal lives, who taught us, where, what and how they taught us, and what we took from the experiences. Each of us also
Author(s): The Open University

Fishing: can it be sustainably managed?
This free course, Fishing: can it be sustainably managed? aims to explore the ways in which fishing, an economic activity, can also be understood as an environmental problem. Video, charts, tables and activities will introduce the UK commercial fishing industry and how management techniques are applied in a quest to achieve sustainable fish stocks. The interplay of historical, economic, social, political and geographical factors that shape the UK fishing industry are also considered.Author(s): Creator not set

This free course provided an introduction to studying Environment & Development. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.

Author(s): The Open University

This means mitigating some of the adverse 'environmental' consequences of fossil and nuclear fuel use through the introduction of new, 'clean' technologies that should substantially reduce pollution emissions and health hazards. These include 'supply-side' measures to improve the efficiency with which fossil fuels are converted into electricity in power stations; cleaner and more efficient combustion methods; the increasing use of 'waste' heat in combined heat-and-power schemes; and 'end of p
Author(s): The Open University

Geothermal energy is another renewable source that is not derived from solar radiation. As the name implies, its source is the earth's internal heat, which originates mainly from the decay of long-lived radioactive elements. The most useful geothermal resources occur where underground bodies of water called aquifers can collect this heat, especially in those areas where volcanic or tectonic activity brings the heat close to the surface. The resulting hot water, or in some cases steam, is used
Author(s): The Open University

Solar energy, it should firstly be stressed, makes an enormous but largely unrecorded contribution to our energy needs. It is the sun's radiant energy, as noted in Box 2, that maintains the Earth's surface at a temperature warm enough to support human life. But despite this enormous input of energy to our civilisation, t
Author(s): The Open University

Glossary item
Definition
atom
the smallest amount of a chemical element that still retains the properties of that element.
biodiversity
a contraction of 'biological diversity', in general it describes the variety of life on Earth and specifically the total sum of the genes, species, habitats and ecosystems in a given environment.
Brundtland report
Author(s): The Open University

The final concept, discussed in Case Study 3, is the complexity of interactions between society, technology and environment, illustrated by Figure 14. A simple technical fix to a problem, such as the introduction of a harmless gas (Freon), or a new predator (the Cane Toad), can have many unintended
Author(s): The Open University

But one striking example does not make an argument. To try to get a fuller and possibly fairer picture of energy use by domestic refrigerators I'd like also to look at the UK experience over the past few decades.

To start with it helps to have a feel for which parts of the UK economy use the most energy. The UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI, 1998), identifies four main economic sectors: domestic (households), industry, services and transport.

In 2003 the domestic sector (h
Author(s): The Open University

Some campaigners were not convinced by the arguments of refrigerator manufacturers and suppliers (who also happened to own some patents for HCFCs and HFCs) that the only solution, in the short to medium term, was to use the transitional compounds. They tried to demonstrate that there were practical alternatives. A group of scientists working with Greenpeace International designed a domestic refrigerator based on the use of hydrocarbons, using a mix of propane and isobutane for the refrigerant
Author(s): The Open University

Allen, J. (2006) â€˜Claiming connections: a distant world of sweatshops?â€™ in Barnett, C., Robinson, J. and Rose, G. (eds) A Demanding World, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
Barnes, D.K.A. (2002) â€˜Invasions by marine life on plastic debrisâ€™, Nature, vol. 416, 25 April, pp. 808â€“9.
Barnett, C. (2006) â€˜Reaching out: the demands of citizenship in a gl
Author(s): The Open University

We have seen that human-induced climate change poses a challenge for people who live on islands. Such changing patterns and extremes of climate also put pressure on the other living things that are part of the make-up of island territories. However, long before human beings became aware that they could transform the flows that constitute climate, they and other species were already taking advantage of these same flows to help create the very territories that are now under threat. But have the
Author(s): The Open University

From a pro-market standpoint, global market forces and the competitive pressures that they generate leave businesses with no choice but to take advantage of lower labour costs elsewhere. In the textile business or the toy business, lower wage costs are the key to profitability; if your competitors find a cheaper labour source, you either follow their example or go out of business. It is not, so the argument runs, because managers lack integrity or compassion that there are now more manufactur
Author(s): The Open University

The rise of global factories in the 1970s owed much to the rapid improvement in transport and communications technologies which took place at that time and which made it possible to keep in touch with, and control, production processes in different parts of the world. Just as significant was the fragmentation of industrial production whereby parts of the manufacturing process could be relocated over vast distances. Sewing in garment and footwear production, for instance, was among the
Author(s): The Open University