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2.1 The consequences of living in the trees

This unit contains a lot of detailed information about particular tree-dwelling mammals. You will need to take care not to get too absorbed in the fine details but to ensure that you take away the important overall messages. Those are, of course, listed as the learning outcomes at the beginning of the unit. Loo
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8 What makes a successful omnivore?

From what has been said already, there's good evidence that the key physical characteristic of the great majority of omnivores is a non-specialist dentition. What about other aspects of their biology?

Question 11

Question: Many omni
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6 The good family Procyonidae

As DA comments, this family is such an odd and varied collection that it doesn't have a common name [p. 170]. Its most familiar member (after which the family is named) is the raccoon, but the 19 species that comprise the family include mammals as diverse in habits and feeding preferences as the raccoon dog, the kinkajou and the red panda.

There is considerable taxonomic controversy about the members of the raccoon family – including the status of the red panda. With the kinkajou, ear
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4.2 Other members of the bear family

Other omnivorous species of bear include the Asian black bear, the North American black bear and the Andean spectacled bear. Although polar bears spend their winters hunting seals out on the Arctic sea-ice, they have to come ashore when the ice melts in spring and find other sources of food.

Activity 2
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowl
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Fur

Fur is important in thermoregulation, but a conspicuous coat may proclaim sexual dominance or warn off competitors. It's similarly important for predators to remain unseen for as long as possible. The most familiar type of camouflage is the colour of the hunter merging into the background environment colour – think about stoat in winter (ermine), polar bears against the ice of the Arctic and lions against the baked soil and dried grass of Africa. But equally important is the patterned fur o
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • describe the characteristics of light emitted by stars, and hence the information of cosmological interest that can be deduced from it;

  • distinguish between true and false statements relevant to the distribution and motion of stars within galaxies, and of galaxies within clusters and superclusters;

  • outline the methods used for estimating the distances to stars and to galaxies;

  • explain and
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4.4 Nitrogen: a developing threat to health

A great deal of attention, by governments and the media, is focused on the environmental threat posed by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and on the urgent need to reduce them. Mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels, the level of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased by some 36% since pre-industrial times. According to recent estimates (IPCC, 2007), this increase has contributed more than 50% of the global warming attributed to human activities. The rest is due to enhance
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3.5 Line graphs

To illustrate how to create and use line graphs, we will use the example of a calibration curve.

A calibration curve is a type of line graph in which the response of a measuring device to a series of known concentrations of a substance is plotted. You can then make a measurement of an unknown sample – in the case we're about to examine, blood serum samples from new-born infants – and use the calibration curve to work out what concentration of substance is present.


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5.2 Precambrian and Lower Palaeozoic Basement

The Precambrian and Lower Palaeozoic Basement of the British Isles is a series of nine discrete, exotic terranes whose boundaries are fault systems that have undergone large but usually unknown amounts of lateral and vertical movement over time (Figure 11 and Author(s): The Open University

5.1 Introduction

Figure 9
Figure 9 Lithotectonic units of the British Isles

In previous sections, it was revealed that in the British Isles, the Phanerozoic er
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4.5 How wide were the oceans?

Once evidence has been found to prove the existence of an ancient ocean, is it possible to calculate its maximum width? Palaeomagnetic studies can give geologists an idea of the palaeolatitude (N–S) of the ocean but not its palaeolongtitude (E–W), so depending on its orientation, an indication of how wide it was may not be possible. However, an approximate indication of how wide the former oceans were can be obtained by examining the fossil faunal assemblages that are present (e.g.
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4.3.3 Stage 3: Passive continental margin formation

Eventually, movement along faults initiated during the continental rifting stage ceases, and the entire continental margin starts to subside. Subsidence at this stage occurs because of lithospheric cooling as the distance between the margin and spreading ridge-axis increases, rather than as a result of tectonic movement of the fault blocks (as during the continental rifting stage). By now, all tectonic activity is focused at the new oceanic spreading axis and the continental lithosphere can b
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4.3.2 Stage 2: Embryonic ocean basin formation (southern Red Sea stage)

If extension and rifting progresses sufficiently, this will lead to the development of an embryonic ocean along the site of the earlier rift zone (see Figure 6b). Prior to true oceanic lithosphere being produced, basaltic magma will be repeatedly intruded into the continental lithosphere along fractures and shear
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2.3 The study of a raindrop

Most of the usable water is derived from the 1.1 × 105 km3 that falls over the land surface each year as rain, snow, sleet or hail. The collective term for all of these sources of water is precipitation. At this point, you will consider the size of the drops of water that make up clouds or rain (Figure 5).

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4 Conclusions

Activity 3

Read back over Section 3. Make two columns on a piece of pap
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3.6 Summary of Section 3

Sound waves received by the ear are turned into neural activity by a complex mechanism involving the eardrum, the bones in the middle ear, and the hair cells within the cochlea. The auditory nerve carries the signal from the ears to the brainstem, from where it passes via the thalamus to the auditory areas of the cerebral cortex. In the cortex, speech sounds are extracted from the incoming signal. There are neural circuits in the auditory cortex that are specialised for speech and language as
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11.2 Frequency discrimination

Some findings indicate that, for moderate loudness levels, humans can detect a frequency change of about 1 to 3 Hz for frequencies up to about 1000 Hz. Figure 37 shows a plot of the smallest frequency difference for which two tones can be discriminated for a number of reference tones. You can see from the figure that up to about 1000 Hz, the D
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11.1 The relationship between frequency and pitch

Although the perception of sound involves the interaction of frequency and intensity, many aspects of frequency reception can be analysed separately.

For normal or typical hearing, the limits of hearing for frequency fall between 20 and 20 000 Hz. Below 20 Hz only a feeling of vibration is perceived; above 20 000 Hz, only a ‘tickling’ is experienced.

As well as loudness, the other most obvious characteristic of a sound is its pitch. Pitch is a subjective dimension of he
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9.2 Absolute thresholds

The absolute threshold or absolute limen is the smallest value of a stimulus that an observer can detect. The concept of an absolute threshold assumes there is a precise point on the intensity or energy dimension that, when reached, becomes just perceptible to the observer and he or she responds ‘yes – I can detect the stimulus’. It follows that when the stimulus is one unit weaker it will not be detected. If this were the case then some form of hypothetical curve, like th
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