One way of illustrating the possible ways of moving material around the rock cycle is to draw a diagram that places the processes into their geological contexts. Since the rock cycle involves processes occurring on the Earth's surface and also within its interior, we use a cross-section through the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle to do this, as shown in Figure 19. In this diagram we have concentrated on the most common processes within the rock cycle.

Author(s): The Open University

A mineral is a solid material, formed by natural processes and with a chemical composition that falls within certain narrow limits. Its constituent atoms are arranged in a regular three-dimensional array or pattern and because of this, minerals form crystals with characteristic shapes.

Although several thousand different kinds of mineral have been discovered, only a few are very common; for example, the mineral quartz, which forms many of the sand grains on a beach or in a desert. Becau
Author(s): The Open University

Squares, roots and powers
From paving your patio to measuring the ingredients for your latest recipe, squares, roots and powers really are part of everyday life. This free course reviews the basics of all three and also describes scientific notation, which is a convenient way of writing or displaying large numbers. First published on Tue, 07 May 2019 as Author(s): Creator not set

To subtract one number from another without using a calculator you need to know basic subtractions up to 20. This means that you need to know, off by heart, what result you get if you subtract any number up to 10 from any bigger number up to 20. For example you have to remember that 14 minus 6 is 8, or 9 minus 5 is 4, and so on.

If you are confident that you know the basic subtractions up to 20, carry on with the rest of this course. If you are unsure, or would like some practice to he
Author(s): The Open University

The fraction , is the simplest form of all its equivalent fractions, because it cannot be â€˜simplifiedâ€™ further (by dividing top and bottom by the same whole number called a common factor<
Author(s): The Open University

1.4 Law, skills and learning outcomes

This course has a number of learning outcomes. In relation to a course of study, a learning outcome is simply something which you should be able to do (and to show that you can do) at the end of studying a particular course. The learning outcomes are concerned with ability to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of company law, and also ability to demonstrate a range of skills, including use of IT, research and problem-solving.

In addition to being listed at the beginning of the cour
Author(s): The Open University

1.2 Law and context

The law relating to businesses, which includes company law, is a highly practical subject because of the areas which it covers. You may in fact already have experience of this if you are in business; in addition or alternatively, you may be a shareholder in a company, or have lent money to one.

All students and practitioners of these areas of law therefore need to have a good understanding of how they actually work in practice, as well as the commercial, political, economic and social c
Author(s): The Open University

4.3 Making a plan

How you respond to this suggestion will depend on what sort of person you are. Many of us are great planners with timetables and lists for every part of our lives; others just get on with the priorities and everything else follows in due course. Planning is no guarantee everything will get done or that deadlines will be met, but the process of making a plan makes you focus on what the task entails and gives direction and purpose to your study. Studying does demand that most students need to p
Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

This course considers the way that judges make law, how the common law system works and the advantages and disadvantages of a system like the British one that relies heavily on such rules and rule making. The course will set out the basic differences between â€˜civil codeâ€™ systems and â€˜common lawâ€™ systems, and consider the relationship between judge-made law and statutory law.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 1 study in
Author(s): The Open University

3.7 The growth of the ECHR

The achievements of the ECHR are many. It continues to promote human rights and democracy across Europe, it has established jurisprudence in human rights and it has made significant contributions to the continued peace and stability of Europe. Recent reforms mean that the right of individual petition is now guaranteed, so individuals are afforded protection from the power of the state. The number of HCPs has expanded to 46 and access to the protection of the ECHR and the ECtHR is available to
Author(s): The Open University

3.14 Mixed numbers

In order to do arithmetic with mixed numbers like , it is often best to write them as a simple fraction, that is, one number over another.

Author(s): The Open University

4 OpenMark quiz

Now try the quiz and see if there are any areas you need to work on.

Author(s): The Open University

3.5 The European Court of Human Rights

Section II of the European Convention on Human Rights comprises thirty-three articles, which are all related to the setting up and conduct of proceedings before the European Court of Human Rights. They include, for example, the power to make rules governing how applications are made to the Court, how the Court is conducted, how judges are appointed to the Court and their period of appointment. Each HCP is able to appoint one judge to the European Court of Human Rights.

In its original f
Author(s): The Open University

3.5 Several calculations and using brackets

Sometimes you may want to make several calculations in succession, and the order in which the calculations are performed may or may not be significant. For example, if you want to add 12 + 7 + 13, it makes no difference which of these two processes you adopt:

add the 12 and 7 first, to give 19, and then the 13, to give 32;

or

add the 7 and 13 first, to give 20, and then add this to 12 to give 32 again.

Author(s): The Open University

3.3 Have I given due consideration to units of measurement?

Many mathematical problems include units of measurement. The measurement may be of length, weight, time, temperature or currency. The UK uses both metric and imperial units.

The table below gives the units of length that are in everyday use in the UK, but you may know some others.