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6.6 A few final thoughts

This final section has concentrated on the heart, the lungs and the blood – the body's cardio-respiratory system. We saw briefly how the body takes oxygen in through the lungs, and discussed the importance of this for athletes in various sports. To understand the role of oxygen in the body and its importance to athletes, we had to draw on information that we had discussed in earlier sections about the way oxygen is carried in the blood and the way that the heart pumps blood to different par
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6.5 Training at high altitude

Many of the world's best endurance athletes train at high altitudes – a long way above sea level – to improve their performance. At high altitudes there is less oxygen in the air and it's believed that the body has to work harder to extract what little oxygen remains. When the athlete returns to lower altitudes, their body retains the ability to use oxygen more efficiently and their performance will have improved.

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6.1 Introduction

We have learnt that part of the reason the heart pumps blood around is to make sure that the body gets a fresh supply of oxygen. So in the same way that our hearts need to keep beating, we need to keep breathing oxygen into our lungs to survive. But what is the function of oxygen? Why does our body need oxygen, and what does it do with it once we have breathed it in? These are some of the questions that we will examine in first part of this section.

In the second part of this section, w
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5.3 Blood vessels: veins, arteries and capillaries

The tubes that carry blood around the body can be loosely divided into two types, arteries and veins. Arteries are the tubes that take blood away from the heart. They tend to be quite large, at least a few millimetres in diameter. Veins are the tubes that carry the blood back to the heart and these are usually narrower than the arteries.


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5.1 Introduction

Elite athletes are aware of the importance of heart performance and blood flow and many have specific training programmes to increase the strength and efficiency of the heart. This is not, however, just something that impacts on elite athletes. Even those of us engaged in sport at an amateur level or just for recreation will have experienced the effect of sport on the heart. After intense physical activity our heart pounds and possibly our head pounds too from the blood that is being pumped t
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4.4 Maximum heart rate

The other part of an efficient heart is the maximum rate that it can beat. If we think about competitors in a race that takes about five minutes, the athlete whose heart can beat at 200 times per minute for five minutes will probably do much better than one whose heart can only beat at 180 times per minute.

This is linked to how much blood is pumped with each beat. If an individual's heart doesn't pump very much blood when they are resting, then the heart rate has to increase so
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4.1 Introduction

The heart is the engine of the human body – but what about it's specific function in athletes participating in sport? We have seen that athletes need to get oxygen and nutrients to different parts of their body quickly – this means they need an efficient cardiovascular system, this means having an efficient heart.

What do we mean by an efficient heart? We mean one that pumps a lot of blood with every beat and that can beat quickly for a long period of time. An athlete's heart differ
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2.2 The body as a machine

This is a useful way of thinking if we want to understand some basic aspects of how the body works in its relation to sport. We can think of the body as a device that operates on simple mechanical principles, that needs to be fuelled and that uses up this fuel as it is driven harder.

Figure 1
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Introduction

With the announcement of the summer Olympics coming to London in 2012, fierce competition between football clubs in the domestic league, and developments in coaching and training throughout all areas of physical fitness, there has never been a better time to learn more about sport. Many of us take for granted what we know about sport, whether we participate or spectate. But have you ever thought about delving deeper, to find out more about the sport you follow in particular and how it fits in
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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Couse image: Val D'Aquila in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

The content acknowledg
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Health and Social Care. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 2 study in Health & Social Care. If you found this interesting, take a look at the Open University module Death, Dying & Bereavement (K220):
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Health and Social Care. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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4 Aerobic fitness training methods

Various training methods can be employed to develop aerobic fitness. In the activity below we explore some examples used by a team of footballers.

Activity 1

Allow about 40 minutes

Watch th
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3.2 Intensity

Exercise intensity refers to the level of effort or workload at which someone should exercise to stimulate an improvement in their fitness. As mentioned in the previous section, to improve aerobic fitness the ACSM recommend moderate and/or vigorous intensity activity for most adults (Garber et al., 2011). Table 1 summarises what moderate and vigorous mean.

Exercise intensity can be measured using either heart rate or the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method. We will look at each of
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3.3 Mental health as business: the profit motive

There is little question that the use of drugs to treat mental distress has become the dominant strategy. The historian Edward Shorter puts it graphically:

If there is one central intellectual reality at the end of the twentieth century, it is that the biological approach to psychiatry – treating mental illness as a genetically influenced disorder of brain chemistry – has been a smashing success.

(Shorter
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3.2 Mental health as business: introducing the debate

Is mental health a business? There are a number of signs that it could be, and Activity 8 presents a discussion between two people with strong views on mental health services and how they should be delivered. Dr Harvey Gordon is a forensic psychiatrist who has been a long-term consultant at Broadmoor High Security Hospital, and also a consultant at the Maudesley Hospital in London. Jim Read has worked for many years in organisations and networks of mental health service users/survivors as a c
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2.3 Community care, fear and the ‘high-risk’ service user

So far in this course you have seen how the concept of risk has come to suggest danger. This section explores in greater depth how the changes that have led to this situation have impacted on mental health policies and practice. The next activity involves reading an article to help you consider risk in the context of mental health services.


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1.2 Boundaries of exclusion

The first idea to come under critical consideration is that of boundaries. Boundaries can be helpful and, indeed, we use them here as a means of exploring different, and competing, explanations of mental health and distress. However, they can also be limiting and excluding, emphasising the differences between people, some of which run very deep. At their simplest, boundaries put limits on tasks so that they appear manageable. They help to mark out personal space in a shared office, or indicat
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Acknowledgements

This unit is taken from Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Course Reader) which forms part of the core text for the Open University course K221 Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, (eds Tom Heller, Geraldine Lee-Treweek, Jeanne Katz, Julie Stone and Sue Spurr) (The Open University) published by Routledge, Taylor and Francis in association with The Open University. Copyright © The Open University 2005.

Except for third party material
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you t
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