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4.2 Scientific risk analysis

In the context of national and international legislation on the safety of food and animal feed, much of the thinking about assessing risk has come from the experience of developing legislation to cover potentially toxic chemicals. In this regard, the terms 'risk' and 'hazard' are particularly important. ENTRANSFOOD (European network safety assessment of genetically modified food crops) has defined the terms as follows:


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1.1 Constructing the H-R diagram

Three properties which are suitable for comparing stars are temperature, luminosity and radius. However, we don't need all three.

Question 1

Why not?
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2.2 How animals interact with the environment is affected by their body size

Willmer et al. (2000) classify desert animals in terms of the range of body sizes and the rate of evaporation (Figure 8).

Figure 8
Willmer,
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • define and use, or recognise definitions and applications of, each of the bold terms

  • give definitions of the terms ‘hibernation’, ‘torpor’ and ‘adaptive hypothermia’, and the three physiological processes that underlie them

  • give examples of the diversity of the major groups of mammals and birds that contain hibernating species

  • describe the physiological changes occurring d
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4.5.4 Phosphorus

Phosphorus is recognised as a potential poison for automotive catalysts. The phosphorus level in fuel is generally very low (2×10−5 g l−1), but it is present in higher concentrations in engine oils (1.2 g l−1). Phosphorus derived from the engine oil is believed to react with the alumina support, and also to reduce the activity of the noble metal component. This deactivation is particularly important for Pd, with which phosphorus may form an all
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Course image: NIH Image Gallery in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is ma
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8.4 Fragile X syndrome

Fragile X syndrome is the final example of a genetic disease considered here.

Activity 21

What does the term ‘genetic disease’ mean?

Answer
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7.5 What do neurotrophins do?

Neurotrophins shut down the mechanism of apoptosis. Neurotrophins do this by attaching to receptors in the cell membrane of the innervating axon and activating a cascade of biochemical reactions. The sequence of intracellular events need not concern you. The end result is that enzymes that destroy the cell are not produced and the cell remains alive.


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5.5 Summary of Section 5

When oestradiol combines with its receptor inside neurons, the cell produces proteins which protect it from cell death. As a consequence, the male brain, which has oestradiol in its neurons in early life, becomes different from the female brain, which does not have oestradiol in its neurons. Retinoic acid is needed in high concentrations to produce those proteins associated with posterior structures of the embryo, whilst retinoic acid is needed in low concentrations to produce those proteins
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3.2 Small babies

Development continues in the womb until birth, which, in humans, is about 38 weeks after conception. (The often quoted duration of pregnancy of 40 weeks is based on pregnancy beginning on the first day of the last menstrual period.) The duration of the period of development before birth, called gestation, is highly variable. It is not possible to determine its full range in the UK, because medical intervention usually prevents pregnancies going beyond about two weeks after the due date, or te
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2.10 Selenium (Se)

Selenium is found in the body in an important group of enzymes (glutathione peroxidases) which have important antioxidant properties and work in conjunction with vitamins C and E to destroy free radicals in cells. Some studies have shown that a higher selenium level is linked to a lower risk of breast, prostate and colon cancer, which may in part be due to selenium's antioxidant function. Other selenium-containing proteins help to regulate thyroid function and play a role in the immune system
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1.6.3 Niacin (vitamin B3)

Niacin, which comprises two compounds, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, also occurs widely in food and is added to many breakfast cereals. It is easily absorbed into the blood from the digestive system and plays a vital role in energy production in cells. It appears to reduce the levels of low density lipoproteins or LDLs in the blood and increase high density lipoproteins or HDLs, perhaps by affecting the proteins that carry the fats. This is important because LDLs are a way of transporting
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1.1.1 The chemical structure of DNA

This course explores the chemical nature of the genome. Genomes are composed of DNA, and a knowledge of the structure of DNA is essential to understand how it can function as hereditary material. DNA is remarkable, breathtakingly simple in its structure yet capable of directing all the living processes in a cell, the production of new cells and the development of a fertilized egg to an individual adult.

DNA illustrates beautifully the precise relationship between molecular structure and
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The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

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Optional reading

If you are interested in investigating the issues raised by the House of Lords Select Committee report in more detail, you will find a copy of the full report on the web at:

http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199900/ldselect/ldsctech/38/3801.htm

The following references also discuss issues related to key findings from this report: Irwin and Michael (2003, particularly pp. 19–40), Miller (2001) and Gibbons (1999).

This overall picture places demands on you as a co
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1.5.1 Rhetoric and rigour

Most students know that a PhD requires good science or good engineering or good disciplinary research of whatever flavour. Many forget that it also requires good ‘story telling’. Both rigour and rhetoric are essential ingredients of a successful dissertation. At the OU, rhetoric is an explicit criterion for a PhD.

Getting the form and voice of the dissertation right is just as important as getting the content right in showing mastery, rigour and insight; indeed, they a
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1.7 Interlude

Now that we have covered the features found in igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, and seen how these features can be explained by the processes that formed the rocks, here is a useful point at which to have a break before continuing with the next section. Before returning, you might like to see for yourself what types of rock you can find in your area. Can you identify their texture, or spot any fossils? Surfaces that haven't been obscured by grime or lichens are by far the best, as
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1.4.1 Igneous rocks in the landscape

The rocks that erupt from volcanoes are called extrusive igneous rocks, simply because they are formed by the extrusion of magma on to the Earth's surface. Igneous rocks can also form deep underground, and these are called intrusive igneous rocks, because the magmas were intruded into pre-existing rocks and then slowly cooled. The reason that intrusive igneous rocks are now visible at the surface is that over many millions of years erosion has stripped away the overlying rocks.
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce materia
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5.1 Introduction

Two articles taken from the Selected Readings of the Neural Ageing strand of the SD805 course are presented below. These articles focus on two important areas in the study of Author(s): The Open University

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