You are about to meet some very large numbers, expressed in scientific notation, and some new units. The new units are those that are used to measure the amount of solar energy received by a part of the Earth's surface. Since plants are dependent on light for photosynthesis, the amount of plant material that ca

In Activity 1, below, you are asked to make notes from a TV sequence and then select some of the information from your notes and combine it

Insects are generally very small animals. Many kinds are hard work to collect and not very nutritious because a high proportion of their mass is a protective and indigestible outer layer, called cuticle. Insectivorous mammals need to eat large numbers of insects to fulfil their energy requirements.

Insect eaters have diverse ways of catching and dealing with their prey; teeth play a crucial role. Indeed, teeth are of such enormous significance to mammalian diets in general (and are so r

Sixty-five million years ago, animal and plant life were very different from nowadays, but there were rat-sized placental mammals living successfully on the ground. They were insect eaters, i.e. insectivores, feeding on the vast numbers of insects and other invertebrates living in soil, leaf litter and low-lying vegetation. Insectivore means â€˜insect eaterâ€™, and in this unit we will explore the world of insect-eating mammals, classified together on the basis of a reasonably close evolution

3.6.5 Using the gradient of a semi-logarithmic graph to calculate doubling time or half-life

Knowing the equation allows you to perform several useful calculations without needing to make a graph, and we'll look at one such example in a moment.

First, let's return to the gradient of the exponential increase graph in Author(s):

1.3 Marking decimals on a scale

Figure 2 shows a picture of a ruler. The major units are marked in centimetres (1 to 11 cm), whilst the intervals between the centimetres have each been split into ten equal, smaller units. These minor units are therefore *tenths* of a centimetre, commonly known as â€˜millimetresâ€™. (There are 10 millimetres in 1 centimetre

Simple rules for dealing with orders of magnitude and decimal points in decimal numbers: values ten times bigger than the order of magnitude you are looking at go to the left, ten times smaller go to the right, and less than 1 to the right of the decimal point.

*Note:* in many European countries, a comma is used instead of a decimal point. For instance in France and Germany two and a half (in other words 2.5) can be written as 2,5. This is important to bear in mind, for example, if

Suppose you have less than one of any particular unit: how would you represent that using the decimal system?

Well, we've already seen that decimal numbers rely on a positional system, in which values get smaller by factors of ten as you read from left to right. If we continue doing this, then the number to the right of a single unit represents tenths of that unit. A **decimal point** is then used to mark the boundary between the whole units and tenths of that unit.

For instanc

1.1 Introducing the decimal system of numbers

Many different systems for writing numbers have been developed over the history of humankind.

The easiest way of counting small numbers is to use your fingers, and for this reason many numerical systems, such as the decimal system, are based around the number ten. But what happens when you run out of fingers to count on?

Numbering systems get round this problem by using a system of *scale* in which many small units are represented by a single larger unit, and many of these la

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

understand the decimal system of numbering (hundreds, tens, units);

explain the best way to write down decimal numbers and associated units of measurement in the healthcare workplace, in a manner that avoids confusion;

understand the concepts of discrete and continuous variables and the best types of graphs used to represent these data;

analyse, construct and extract information from grap

This sample of S110 material is taken from Module 2, entitled *Using numbers and handling data*. As you read the material, bear in mind that it is taken from a work-based course, designed for those who are employed in the health services, perhaps as a paramedic or as operating theatre staff. If you were a student on the course, you would have an OU tutor to help you, plus a work-based mentor supplied by the employer â€“ normally the NHS. The aim is to use the workplace as a teaching aren

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

## Author(s):

Now you have completed this unit, try the following questions to test your understanding of this material.

## Question 19

Like the Variscan Orogenic Belt, the Caledonian includes large granitic intrusions. Using the Author(s):

A discrete exotic terrane refers to a large crustal fragment that can be recognised by its distinct sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic and structural history compared with that of its eventual neighbours, and has been juxtaposed into position by major strikeâ€“slip faults.

Nine discrete exotic terranes make up the Basement in the British Isles. These consist primarily of Precambrian metamorphosed rocks but also contain some unmetamorphosed sedi

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Biological psychology: exploring the brain (SD226)

This unit looks at how language is understood, which includes hearing and how sounds and words are interpreted by the brain. It takes an interdisciplinary approach and should be of wide general interest.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

## Author(s):

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

define and use, or recognise definitions and applications of, each of the

**bold**terms;provide examples that show there is a continuum of desert climates and environments that link to diversity of flora and fauna;

explain, with examples, the thermoregulatory strategies of evaders, evaporators and endurers, and interpret relevant data;

describe the importance of integration of behavi

All mammalian hibernators arouse periodically. The frequency of the arousal and the length of the euthermic periods between bouts of hibernation vary widely with species, among individuals, and with the time of year (e.g. in deep hibernators, the larger species seem to have longer periods of wakefulness than the smaller ones). The arctic marmot (*Marmosa caligata*), whose heart rate recording is shown in Author(s):

Having read this unit you should be able to:

discuss how the gas mixture expelled from the engine, and the conversion performance of the three-way catalytic converter, depend on the air/fuel (A/F) ratio;

list the chemical reactions whereby the three-way catalyst removes carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (NO

_{x}) from petrol vehicle exhausts;interpret the results of experimental studies (involving activity test

*Nature*, 228, pp. 477â€“8.

*Science*, 297, pp. 851â€“4.