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Learning outcomes

By the end of your work on this unit you should have:

  • an understanding of the main events of the French Revolution 1789–99 and its significance in the shift in European culture from Enlightenment to Romanticism;

  • an enhanced appreciation of the French Revolution and its significance through exposure to selected contemporary texts, documents and illustrations of the period.


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Introduction

This unit provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Alan Wilson

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • assess the specific problems concerning the health of a community;

  • describe how medical knowledge was a resource for, and was shaped by, broader cultural perceptions of the body.


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1.3 Napier's approach to logarithms

Napier's major and more lasting invention, that of logarithms, forms a very interesting case study in mathematical development. Within a century or so what started life as merely an aid to calculation, a set of ‘excellent briefe rules’, as Napier called them, came to occupy a central role within the body of theoretical mathematics.

The basic idea of what logarithms were to achieve is straightforward: to replace the wearisome task of multiplying two numbers by the simpler task
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should:

  • understand the significance of John Napier's contributions to mathematics;

  • give examples of the factors that influenced Napier's mathematical work.


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References

Section 1
Barker, E. et al. (1999) The Changing Status of the Artist, New Haven and London, Yale University Press in association with The Open University.
Hibbard, H. (1983) Caravaggio, London, Thames and Hudson.
Kant, I. (1987) Critique of Judgment (trans. W.S. Pluhar), Indianapolis, Hackett.

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2.8 Further reading

Gombrich, E.H. (1971) ‘Psycho-analysis and the history of art’ in Meditations on a Hobby Horse (2nd edn), London, Phaidon, pp. 30–44.

Iseminger, G. (ed.) (1992) Intention and Interpretation, Philadelphia, Temple University Press.

Shiff, R. (1996) ‘Originality’ in Shiff, R. and Nelson, R.S. (eds) Critical Terms for Art History, Chicago and London, The University of Chicago Press, pp. 103–15.

Soussloff, C.M. (1997) ‘The artist in myth: early
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2.7 Art, life and the interpretation of pictures

David Carrier's book, Principles of Art History Writing (1991) considers the way that Caravaggio has been constructed as an artistic personality (the relevant chapter is below). The objective of Carrier's book as a whole is to demonstrate that the ‘appeal to the artist's intention adds nothing’ to the interpretation of his artworks (recall the discussion of Wimsatt and Beardsley in Author(s): The Open University

1.5 Further reading

Battersby, C. (1989) Gender and Genius: Towards a Feminist Aesthetics, London, Women's Press.

Kris, E. and Kurz, O. (1979) Legend, Myth, and Magic in the Image of the Artist: A Historical Experiment, New Haven and London, Yale University Press.

Soussloff, C.M. (1997) ‘The artist in nature: Renaissance biography’, The Absolute Artist: The Historiography of a Concept, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, pp. 43–72.

White, H. (1990) Content
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Michael Beaney

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

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4.5 Two mythological songs: ‘Prometheus’ (1819) and ‘Ganymed’ (1817)

Goethe's poem ‘Heidenröslein’, with which we began, is a mock folksong; ‘Erlkönig’ is a mock ballad along the lines of Scottish models. They are, so to speak, poems in fancy dress. ‘Prometheus’ and ‘Ganymed’ are songs on subjects from ancient Greek myth, but they are in no way imitations of ancient classical models. In these two poems Goethe has taken myths and created modern meditations on them of startling, but quite distinct, kinds.


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4.2 Simplicity and complexity

As we have already discovered, the concept of ‘simplicity’ is not a simple matter. We saw earlier in the unit that the simplicity of folk-song is not the same as classical simplicity, though both influenced the taste of Lieder writers. ‘Heidenröslein’ and ‘Wandrers Nachtlied’ are simple in quite different ways, both in their poetry and in their music. Many other songs by Schubert are much longer, much more complex, and treat the poetry with much greater freedom. This aspect of Sc
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Learning outcomes

By the end of your work on this unit you should:

  • have learned about Schubert's place as a composer in early nineteenth-century Vienna;

  • have learned about the place of Schubert in the history of German song and the development of Romanticism;

  • be able to follow the words of songs by Schubert while listening to a recording, using parallel German and English texts;

  • be able to comment on the relationship between words and music in Schubert
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References

Ayer, A.J., 1954. ‘Freedom and necessity’, in Watson 1982, 15–23.
Butterfield, J., 1998. ‘Determinism’, in Craig 1998.
Craig, E., 1998. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, London and New York: Routledge.
Chisholm, R.M., 1964. ‘Human freedom and the self’, in Watson 1982, 24–35.
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References

Leonard, T. (1984) Intimate voices 1965–1983, Galloping Dog Press.
MacLean, S. (trans. Crichton Smith, I.) (1970) Poems to Eimhir, Northern House.
MacLean, S. (1981) Spring tide and Neap tide: selected poems 1932–72, Canongate.
MacLean, S. (1985) Ris a'Bhruthaich: the criticism and prose writings, Aca
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Conclusion

You have now had an opportunity to examine the poetry of Sorley Maclean. This should have helped you gain an increased sense of the power of Maclean's poetry both in the English and in its original Gaelic.

The provision of the English translations and the discussion by the poet himself during the interview with Ian Critchton-Smith should have increased your understanding of the English texts.


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1.3 MacLean's Celtic roots

MacLean was born in 1911 in Osgaig, a small township on the Isle of Raasay, adjacent to Skye, the larger island where he went to school. His childhood was dominated by a majestic landscape. The woods of Raasay and the peaks of the Cuillin Hills on Skye are as central to his poetic universe as the hills of Cumbria to Wordsworth's. His father and mother combined work on a small croft with a tailoring business. The latter was severely hit by the great depression of the 1930s, and the family's re
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9.1 Key characteristics of the enlightenment

Exercise 9

Try to note down as many of the key characteristics of the Enlightenment as you can remember

Discussion

How did you manage this? Did you remi
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2.1 Introduction

We use the words ‘conscious’ and ‘consciousness’ in a variety of ways. We talk of losing and regaining consciousness, of being conscious of one's appearance and of taking conscious decisions. We speak of self-consciousness and class-consciousness, of consciousness-raising activities and consciousness-enhancing drugs. Freudians contrast the conscious mind with the unconscious, gurus seek to promote world consciousness and mystics cultivate pure consciousness. These various uses reflect
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