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6.1 Introduction

We have learnt that part of the reason the heart pumps blood around is to make sure that the body gets a fresh supply of oxygen. So in the same way that our hearts need to keep beating, we need to keep breathing oxygen into our lungs to survive. But what is the function of oxygen? Why does our body need oxygen, and what does it do with it once we have breathed it in? These are some of the questions that we will examine in first part of this section.

In the second part of this section, w
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Sociality and aging
Professor Stanley Ulijaszek (Oxford) gave this presentation at the Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Dublin, in 2018
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Masters of Nature? - The physics of trying to control the climate
The Earth's climate is changing; but what are we doing about it? The frustration felt all around the world at the inability to agree a meaningful deal on global carbon dioxide emission leaves people looking for alternatives. Do we have the ability to manipulate our planet's climate to prevent the effects of global warming? If so how? What would be the consequences of attempting to do so? Understanding the physics of the Earth's climate is essential to answering these questions. Using the state-
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Is the World Economy Headed for a Fall?
It’s not just the latest IMF forecast causing concern. Many straws in the wind point to tougher times ahead, experts say.
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Rights not set

"Obstruction of Justice" Isn’t What People Think It Is

With the release of the long-awaited Mueller (Special Counsel Robert Mueller) report, we see partisan politics at work again, and the results are what one might expect. Those that have supported President Donald Trump or believe that he has been the victim of a contrived “investigation,” while others, like David French of National Review , a self-described “Never Trumper,” ar
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4 The celebrity persona and the celebrity text

It has been emphasised that we can only know stars through media texts (Dyer, 1998) and this can be extended to seeing celebrities themselves as texts, though for celebrities of any longevity we would certainly have to consider them as large, complex and modulating ones. This section will look at how we might go about reading such a text. There is a distinction between the ‘real’ person and a persona presented in the public arena. One pervasive feature of the ‘large celebrity text’ is
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Acknowledgements

Course image: Davide D'Amico in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is
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4.2.9 European Community reports

Although European cases may appear in the reports considered above, there are two specialist reports relating to EU cases.

  • European Court Reports (ECR)

    These are the official reports produced by the European Court of Justice. As such, they are produced in all the official languages of the Community and consequently suffer from delay in reporting.

  • Common Market Law Reports (CMLR)

    These are unofficial reports published weekly i
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5.12 Pole and Stewart report

Apparently prepared using the same methodology as Law, Pole and Stewart produced a report that calculated the loads at various points in the bridge under live locomotive loads and wind loading at various pressures. Stewart was employed by Bouch to perform the original design calculations for the bridge, while Pole was brought in as an independent expert. He had extensive experience of use of different materials in bridges, and indeed, had written a standard text book for engineers on the subj
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5.11 Further evidence on stability

Given the importance of establishing the nature of the stability of the bridge, further witnesses were called at a later stage in the enquiry to shed some light on the problem. If Mr Noble had observed chattering of the joints in the tie bars, had similar phenomena been observed earlier?

The key witnesses were the engineers in charge of erecting and finalising the structure before it was opened in May 1878, Major-general Hutchinson, the BoT inspector who approved the structure for publi
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2.4.1 Archaeological evidence

This feels in some ways like the most ‘real’ source – where you can almost touch the Classical world, and where you get a sense of what the Classical world looked like. Classical archaeology covers a wide range of areas: not just buildings like the Parthenon or the temples at Paestum, but also cities, landscapes, graves, coins, battlefields, everyday items, plant and animal remains, ancient rubbish and much else. Archaeology often throws up evidence where literature doesn't. People, aft
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1 What is accounting about?

Let's start with a question – we shall call questions ‘Activities’. For many of these activities you will need a pen and paper, or you can use the course Forum, to note down your own ideas. Once you have completed the Activity you should return to the text, read the comments that follow the activity, and then think again about your answer. Change it, if you like. Once you are happy that you have understood the comments and that your own answer is alright, you should continue to read the
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creativ
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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3.3 Liquidity

Borrowers prefer to have the use of funds for as long as possible, while investors generally prefer to be able to get their money back as soon as possible. A major function of the financial markets, and of the stock market in particular, is to reconcile these conflicting requirements. The stock market enables shareholders and bondholders to realise their investment independently of the company by selling their holdings to other investors. This is called the secondary capital market, to distin
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Introduction

This course considers four ways in which some social scientists have claimed that there might be a ‘new economy’ coming in to being: the switch from manufacturing to services, globalisation, new technology and flexible labour markets. The good and bad points of economic change, its benefits and costs, are discussed. For example, what does it mean for people trying desparately to balnace the urgent demands of work and life?

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 1 study in
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6.8 Sharing behaviour between use cases

For each use case there may be more than one scenario. In the process of requirements elicitation and specification, you may find a certain amount of common behaviour in two or more of your use cases. You may even find that an existing component can provide part or all of that common or shared behaviour. Indeed, if you do find such an existing component, this is an example of reusing requirements which is discussed more fully in MRP.

You can record the shared behaviour in
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6.2 Actors

Iteration is a natural part of the modelling process. It does not matter whether you start by looking for the actors or the use cases. We have chosen to begin with the actors, since it is a way of expressing the system boundary implicitly and identifying the different views that need to be taken into account. In practice, you are likely to find that the actors are to be found in the roles that people play as employees in the problem domain, such as the hotel's receptionist or manager.

A
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5.1 More information about modelling techniques

The four remaining diagramming techniques are described in separate sections below, which you should now study:

Diagramming TechniqueSection
Use case modellingUse Cases and Activity Diagrams
Activity diagramsUse Cases and Activity Diagrams
Entity–r
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3.1 Making consistent models

It would be preferable to have a consistent way of representing the different models that one might want to construct. The notion of a modelling language allows the developer to make useful connections between different models. For the most part, models are represented diagrammatically. There are two aspects of a diagram-based modelling language that you should be aware of:

  • a set of rules that defines what symbols can be used on a particular type of di
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