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1.2 Defining parenthood

As a starting point, we need to distinguish parenthood from parenting. Parenthood is more about the role, social status and meanings associated with being a parent, of bringing children into the world and having children to look after. Parenting, on the other hand, is associated with the activities of looking after children and raising them to adulthood. Parenting can be undertaken by a range of people: a man, a woman, a relative or an unrelated carer. It implies a sustained
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4.3.2 Network externalities and increasing returns to scale

The reader should ask herself the following question: Would I subscribe to a telephone service knowing that nobody else subscribes to a telephone service?

The answer should be: Of course not! What use will anyone have from having a telephone when there is no one to talk to?

(Shy, 2001, p. 3)

The uncertainty surrounding production in the introductory phase, which places such importance on
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4.3 Industrial dynamics: knowledge and network industries

This final subsection introduces two more concepts that develop further our analysis of the dynamics of industrial structure, with particular reference to the ‘new economy’ industries. A dynamic approach to industrial change places considerable emphasis on innovation and learning, seeing firms as actively searching out innovative products and processes and learning how to produce and sell them. Some of the novelty of the new economy is reflected in the concepts used in trying to understan
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3.3 Long-run costs and economies of scale

What makes it possible to offer more output for sale at a lower price? That was one of the questions with which Section 3.2 opened. Part of the answer is that the firm's cost curves, which reflect the technology it is using, may display falling average cost as output increases over a range of output levels. The other part
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3.3 A summary

I have shown that, while IT has no doubt had an impact on productivity, it is not clear whether this goes beyond the IT-producing sector, or whether the gains will outlast the boom period of the business cycle. With so much debate, whom should we believe? Perhaps, as is often the case, the truth lies somewhere in the middle. The optimistic view highlights the way that IT has transformed society, and how this transformation has in many instances led to growth through the productivity-enhancing
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2.1 Industrial revolutions and technological change

In this section I shall look at the way that technological innovations in previous eras, such as the invention of electricity in the early 1900s, radically affected the way society organised production and at how these changes spurred general economic growth. In many instances, the changes were so large that they defined an entire period, just as the rise of information technologies has led some to call the current era the ‘information age’.

The way that technological change can fun
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1.6.6 Professional bodies and societies

Consider joining a learned society or professional organisation. They can be very useful for conference bulletins as well as in-house publications, often included in the subscription. Don't forget to ask about student rates. Try looking for the websites of learned societies associated with your subject area (e.g. The Royal Society, the Institute of Electrical
Author(s): The Open University

1.5.1 Why is it important to be organised?

  • 87% of items that are filed into a filing cabinet are never looked at again. STANFORD UNIVERSITY

  • In 2010, the world’s digital information output was estimated to pass 1.2 zettabytes. A zettabyte is a new term which equals a thousand billion gigabytes.

  • A new blog is created every second. TECHNORATI

  • 10% of salary costs are wasted as employees search for information to complete tasks.
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1.4.1 PROMPT

There is so much information available on the Internet on every topic imaginable. But how do you know if it is any good? And if you find a lot more information than you really need, how do you decide what to keep and who to discard?

In this section we are going to introduce a simple checklist to help you to judge the quality of the information you find. Before we do this, spend a few minutes thinking about what is meant by information quality.

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1.3.10 Choosing the right tool for the job

Before searching it is always a good idea to check what the source you have chosen covers to make sure it will unearth information that matches your search need (you will notice that all the resources we’ve covered in this guide have short descriptions to enable you to decide which to use). Some of the decision makers, depending on the context of your search might be:

  • Does it have full text?

  • Does it cover the right subject?


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1.3.4 Databases

At a basic level, a database is a collection of information which can be searched. It is a way of storing, indexing, organising and retrieving information. You may have created one yourself to keep track of your references – or your friends' names and addresses. They are useful for finding articles on a topic, and can be used to search for many different types of information.

You may find some of the following databases useful for your topic. They contain different types of informatio
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1 The politics of racial violence in Britain

Paul Gordon presents a series of views about racial violence from a European perspective. The audio programme was recorded in 1995.

Participants in the audio programme were:

  • Paul Gordon member of The Runnymede Trust (race relations organisation);

  • Liz Fekete researcher at the Institute of Race Relations (educational charity);

  • Cathie Lloyd an academic at Warwick University;


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Introduction

The material presented here focuses on the politics of racial violence in Britain. The material is an audio file, originally 30 minutes in length, and examines the issues around this subject. It was recorded in 1995.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Crime, order and social control (D315) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • identify various techniques that can be used to analyse media text;

  • give examples of how celebrity activity is represented in the media;

  • define specific media terms such as genre and tabloidisation;

  • understand the term celebrity in relation to its representation in the media.


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Introduction

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Crime, order and social control (D315) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this subject area.


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1.1 Engendering citizenship: the notion of social citizenship

Mary Langan talks with Professor Ruth Lister, Professor Fiona Williams, Helen Meekosha and Dr Madeleine Arnot about the notion of social citizenship in relation to the rights and obligations within society, with particular reference to women and disabled people.

Participants in the audio programme were:

  • Mary Langan Senior Lecturer in Social Policy at The Open University;

  • Ruth Lister Professor of Social Policy at Lo
    Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • understand how arguments may be presented in the Social Sciences.


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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

This extract is taken from D315: Crime, order and social control, produced by the BBC on behalf of the Open University.


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11.404 Session 03 - Housing Finance
Session 3 - Housing Finance
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Raider Red Spreads Spirit and Love
January 21 is National Hugging Day, and Raider Red wanted to spread the love to everyone at Texas Tech University.
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