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2.4.4 Networks

The fourth complication of my definition of a carer was networks. The drive to recognise someone as an informal carer or main carer risks leaving out of the picture other people who play an important part in sustaining someone, but who are not the main carer. In Lynne's case, for example, we heard that her boyfriend, Eddie, was an important figure. If her needs for care were under the spotlight, would Eddie figure? He probably does not count as a main carer, but without him her quality of lif
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References

West, S. (2000) Your Rights: A guide to money benefits for older people, London, Age Concern England.

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8.2 Summary

Enid and Sarah mentioned relatives and friends, but the others sounded as if they were managing on their own, or within their immediate family unit. Care work can be an isolating experience. The hours are long. Sometimes they are unpredictable, and being cared for doesn't always mean that you're necessarily going to be able to have the time or energy to develop other relationships. You might like to consider whether demographic changes are likely to have an effect on who is available for care
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7.3 Other kinds of help

Diane said that Paul and Stanley helped her with dog minding, gardening, shopping and other jobs around the house. Sometimes they bought her presents.

John said that what he got from Mr Asghar was the reliability of long-term friendship, advice and support through his various recent problems.

Enid mentioned help from relatives and friends, whom she had come to rely on.

At home, Sarah got help from her mother, who was also disabled. She also got help from other students in he
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7.2 What people do with the money?

Diane and John didn't get any money.

Enid saved her ‘lads’ money for them, and bought them clothes and other things from what she saved. She spent her ICA on herself, though it didn't sound as if she treated herself to many luxuries.

Sarah's payments went towards the allowances for her volunteer helpers at university. They helped her with making meals, mobility around the campus and getting into town. Sometimes she needed help with personal care, such as washing her hair.

<
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6 Audio clip 5: Alex Zinga

Figure 4: Alex Zinga

At the time of the interview, Alex Zinga had recently turned 60. She lived on her own in a small terraced house in Sheffield.
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4 Audio clip 3: Enid Francis

Enid Francis lived in a modern residential area on the outskirts of Derby. She shared a house with her husband, Wally, and two grown-up sons, Mark and John. Her husband had had to give up work eighteen months before his retirement, because of a heart complaint. Their two sons, aged 35 and 32, were both autistic. Enid's day was organised around meeting their needs for care and support. On weekdays, they attended a day centre, which she would have to get them ready for. When they came home in t
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3 Audio clip 2: John Avery

Figure 2: John Avery (right) with Mr Asghor

John Avery, a single parent of a teenage son and a daughter, lived on a council estate on the outskirts
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1 Arrangements for care and support

In this audio unit, Helen Robinson interviews five different, but not untypical, people who have set up arrangements for care and support, which suit themselves and others. All the arrangements involve cash payments, or have done so at some point in time. However, they all also include transactions which, though they aren't made in cash, involve other forms of exchange – goods, emotions, knowledge, and/or help.

Before you listen to each of the clips, take time to read through the note
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6.2 The body, the lungs and oxygen

The figure shows a simple image of how the lungs absorb oxygen from the air.

Figure 11
Figure 11 Air and blood flow

Air contains several differ
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6.1 Introduction

We have learnt that part of the reason the heart pumps blood around is to make sure that the body gets a fresh supply of oxygen. So in the same way that our hearts need to keep beating, we need to keep breathing oxygen into our lungs to survive. But what is the function of oxygen? Why does our body need oxygen, and what does it do with it once we have breathed it in? These are some of the questions that we will examine in first part of this section.

In the second part of this section, w
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5.2 Two halves of one pumping system

The heart pumps blood around the body. That might seem obvious, and you might think that there must be more to it than that, but there isn't. That is all that it does. However, this is a crucially important job.

3 The heart, blood and the lungs

We will now concentrate on the heart, the engine of the body. We will also consider the related topics of blood and blood flow, and the role of the lungs and oxygen in the body.

We all know that the heart is very important but what exactly does the heart do? Why is the blood so important? What functions do the lungs perform? In the next sections, we will try to provide at least a basic understanding so we can answer these questions and begin to understand why knowing about the heart is
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2.1 Introduction

The human body is a sophisticated and amasing entity. Think about the mechanical way the limbs operate, the electrical brain functions and chemicals working together in the different body organs. All of these activities integrate in a largely seamless way to help keep us alive in ways of which most of us are barely aware! Many people are content that their own body works, and don't care much about the details. However, if we want to understand how our own body, or those of elite athletes, fun
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Learning outcomes

Here's how the sections of this unit can help you.

  • A first look at the human body gives you the opportunity to gain an overall appreciation of how the body works in a scientific sense, and understand that a scientific view is necessary for us to study how performance in sport is linked to performance of the body.

  • Athletes and efficient hearts explains the function of the heart briefly and looks at the importance of healthy hearts in sport.


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2 Terminology: patients or people?

In this unit ‘the patient’ has been referred to on several occasions. One reason is the universal usage of the term and the ease with which it is understood. To identify someone as a patient immediately situates them as someone in receipt of medical treatment. However, the term itself is not without difficulty, as sociologists critical of medicine have been quick to point out, since it carries associations of power and authority.

Labelling theory is a useful concept that assesses h
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1 Expectations and administrative pressures

The medical prognoses and diagnoses of dying raise expectations of what will actually happen to the dying person. For example, someone is diagnosed with terminal lung cancer, they will be given a forecast that covers the estimated length of time before death, any likely symptoms, the development of the illness, and possible treatment(s). Of course, these types of medical expectations are not unique to death and dying: they are found in all treatments of illness, and no doubt you will have had
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Introduction

This unit helps you to explore the extent to which death and dying in western societies are medical events and what aspects of death and dying might be neglected as a consequence. The unit covers the way that such things as medicine provide the context of the experiences associated with the end of life.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Death and dying
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3.3 Concerns about being a carer

Some of the things people mentioned were:

  • financial difficulties
  • loss of status
  • relationships if someone gives up paid work
  • physical and emotional demands
  • fears for the future
  • having to ‘fight red tape’
  • worry that they might seem to be overreacting.

Through their work, Jonathan and Jane identify other areas for concern. These include:

  • neglect of carers' o
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3.4 Sarah and John talking under a streetlight

Activity 7

1 hour 30 minutes

Read the Case Study ‘Sarah's story: Under the streetlight’

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