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1.5 Some useful terminology and a convention

It will be useful to end this section by establishing a simple convention and introducing some terminology.

The convention has already been at work in this chapter, but has yet to be made explicit. It is a convention for marking the difference between using a word and mentioning it. Italy has a capital city, and the English language contains a word for that city, but the word and the city are distinct entities. When we are talking about the word rather than what the word i
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • discuss basic philosophical questions concerning the nature of emotions

  • discuss some of the philosophical literature on this subject by William James

  • understand problems concerning the nature of emotions and discuss them in a philosophical way.


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2.3 The building of Thugga

So far we have been considering aspects of Thugga without taking into account the chronology of the site and its monuments. The following table lists the public buildings and monuments of Thugga which are securely dated by inscriptions and gives the date (as near as possible) of construction along with an assessment of how African or Roman they are.


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1.9 Community and identity

In an Italian exhibition of cartoons on the theme of globalization (reported in the Financial Times (Lloyd, 2000)), one depicted two women sitting on a couch. The first woman explains enthusiastically ‘Thanks to globalisation, we know immediately what's happening all over the planet!’; the other, crying, says ‘I just want the gossip from next door!’ This was interpreted as a longing for a previous era of emotionally and physically closer communities. The reality of such ‘good
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1.8 Religion and spirituality

A good example of polysemy can be found in the different ways in which people regard the terms ‘religion’ and ‘spirituality’, and this is the subject of the first exercise below.

Exercise

Give some though
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3.5 The language of law

A potential barrier to understanding, which those new to law can find off-putting, is the use of specialist terminology. This contributes to the perception of law as an elitist and difficult area of study and is something that requires further explanation. Many professions (and social groups) develop their own forms of language to communicate effectively and, in some cases, to signify group membership. In this sense legal language is not unique, but is does have a formal character which can s
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1.3 Representation

Representation is a complex idea, or set of ideas, but it is extremely important in relation to studying religion. Representing religion might mean being an official delegate of a religion, or it might mean trying to explain a religion to someone unfamiliar with it. Representation in the religious context might mean the use of an image to portray a divine figure or religious ideas, or it could refer to how a religion is characterized by either insiders or outsiders. Therefore, the sorts of qu
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References

Bhatkhande, V.N. (1987) Hindustani Sangit Paddhati: kramik pustak malika, 6 vols, Sangeet Karyalaya, Hathras.
Cook, S. (1992) Guide to Sundanese music: a practical introduction to gamelan salendro/pelog, gamelan degung, panambih tembang Sunda, Bandung.
Apel, W. (ed.) (1944) The Harvard Dictionary of music, Heinemann, London.
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4.1 What is a composition?

We are used, in Western art music, to being able to identify a piece of music and its composer. The ‘piece’ is represented by the written notation; it can be realised in somewhat different ways in different performances. One of the problems we have in applying our concepts of composition to the music of other cultures is that it is not always easy the identify a ‘piece’ of music (an item of repertoire), as distinct from a particular performance.

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3.5 Expansion and contraction of the piece: wilet

It should already be clear that, in order for this music to work, musicians need to listen out carefully for what their colleagues are doing. For instance, since the saron I has at least three possible patterns to play (lancaran, caruk and ciaseman), the saron II player must keep listening in case his colleague changes from one to another. The same ‘interlocking’ principle applies to certain other instalments too. In order to show just how important group interaction is in this music howe
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2.2 Notation

The next thing to consider is the role of notation in this tradition. At one point on the video you saw Veena Sahasrabuddhe singing from a printed notation, from a collection first published in the first quarter of the twentieth century by the famous Indian musicologist Pt V.N. Bhatkhande (originally in the Marathi language, this is now best know in its Hindi translation in volume 5 of Bhatkhande, 1987). Actually, she did this at our request – she would not normally sing from notation, but
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Online market research
How has the arrival of the internet changed the nature of marketing research? Can doing market research with online participants be as effective as with real people? Every company knows good market research is a key factor in getting an advantage over their competitors, knowing specific information about target demographics can be essential for a company’s success. In recent years the internet has revolutionised the way in which modern companies collect and gather data but can these contempora
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International management: An institutional perspective
It is common for managers and firms to highlight the difference culture makes to business and management. However, arguably more important are the differences between countries in the social, political, economic and legal institutions that enable and underpin business activity. This free course, International management: An institutional perspective, takes a research-based look at the differences around the world in how capitalism is practised and the practical difference this makes to managers
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The role of the manager
This free course, The role of the manager, examines the manager role in theory and in practice. You will begin by considering two classic theories on the role of the manager, written about in The Manager's Good Study Guide, to assess how relevant they are for your current work. You will then be asked to examine the work of managers in a range of other organisations using video excerpts from the BBC World News series Escape from the Boardroom. Author(s): Creator not set

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Introduction

In very broad terms, ‘culture’ refers to the prevailing norms and values which guide the way people behave in a society or in an organisation. Culture at the level of an organisation is referred to as organisational culture, and culture at the level of a society is referred to as national culture.

Organisational culture refers to an organisation's own values, beliefs and learned ways of doing business. This is reflected in its structure and in the people who work in the organisation
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Introduction

This OpenLearn course examines the nature of social marketing and how the adoption of marketing concepts, frameworks and techniques developed for commercial marketers can be applied to the solution of social problems. Primarily, social marketing aims to effect behavioural change in the pursuit of social goals and objectives, as opposed to financial or other objectives.

This OpenLearn course is an adapted extract from the Open University course
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Strategic view of performance
Strategic management and planning are no longer the preserve of senior executives. This free course, Strategic view of performance, looks at three different approaches to strategy before analysing the direction that strategic management may take now that it has become an accumulation of small tactical decisions rather than a top-down process. If you are interested in how a business 'ticks', this course could provide some of the answers. Author(s): Creator not set

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Introduction

This course is divided into two sections: ‘Understanding market orientation’ and ‘Managing a market-led organisation’. In Section 1 ‘Understanding market orientation’ sets out different approaches to marketing. I argue that marketing should not be the property of just the marketing department but an organisation-wide philosophy that centres on satisfying customers. The way in which marketing ideas can be applied to non-profit organisations is also discussed.

In Section 2 ‘
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Introduction

In this course, we explore some aspects of bringing a complex project to completion. There are a number of things to consider in the final stages of a project. It is very important to ensure that the goals of the project have been achieved, and that all the outcomes and deliverables have been handed over to the sponsor (or that any discrepancies have been addressed). Handover can involve different types of presentation for different types of outcome. There may be a physical object to handover
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Different types of business
A small grocery store run by one person and perhaps their family must pose quite different challenges from a multinational corporation with operations in many different countries. This free course introduces different types of business, depending on industry sector, size and type of ownership and discusses some of the ways in which businesses differ from each other. Author(s): Creator not set

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