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3.3 The reasons for – and emergence of – women working in medicine

Why in the face of such resistance did women wish to become doctors at all? Until recently, many authors have argued that women pursued a medical career as a form of service and for altruistic reasons. Women doctors claimed to be serving the public (one of the features of a profession) by preserving the modesty of women patients and ending their suffering at the hands of male doctors who did not understand the female body. This idea of women being called to serve for the betterment of others
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3.1 Introduction

Women have always cared for the sick. They have nursed family members within the home and worked as nurses, healers and midwives within the community. In the eighteenth century, a few women worked as ‘doctresses’ and ‘surgeonesses’, having received some form of training similar to male practitioners. However, when formal medical training began to be developed in hospitals and medical schools in the early nineteenth century, women were not admitted. Thus they were excluded from the ran
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2.2 Unity and conflict

In the nineteenth century, licensing reform and developments in medical education brought a new unity to the profession. Students had a similar education, trained in large groups and developed a strong sense of allegiance to their institutions and to their teachers (see
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2.1 Introduction

In the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, fundamental and sweeping changes took place in medical training and practice. Apprenticeships, which were once the most common form of medical training, gradually disappeared, and a university education became the norm for all practitioners. Responsibility for licensing practitioners shifted from the old medical guilds and colleges to the state and then back into the hands of medical men. The last remnants of the division of practitioners into
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1.2 The laboratory in diagnosis

Different fields of laboratory research offered a range of new diagnostic techniques. Bacteriological research into the identity of disease-causing microorganisms provided practitioners with a new and accurate means of diagnosing cases of infectious disease. By the 1890s, specimens from patients suspected of suffering from tuberculosis or diphtheria were routinely cultured to confirm a diagnosis made on the basis of symptoms (Worboys, 2000, pp. 211–16, 252–7). Laboratory equipment used to
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1.1 Transforming practice

‘Laboratory medicine’ represented a fundamental shift away from the established view of the body and disease. Where hospital medicine saw disease as a collection of symptoms in life, which related to changes in body structure discovered at post-mortem examination, laboratory medicine sought to explain the structure of the body at the cellular level and to describe its function as a complex series of dynamic processes. Within this medical cosmology, the laboratory usurped the hospital as t
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10 Working-class distress and planned communities

Meanwhile Owen's views on the problem of poverty were also much influenced by his experience at New Lanark and had particular relevance to the difficult era that opened up after the Napoleonic Wars. Economic depression exacerbated growing problems of poverty and unemployment, and Lord Liverpool's government struggled against a rising tide of disorder, which was manifest in protests and riots. The relief of poverty, which had been a problem before, became a nightmare. While he may have had no
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4.5 Owen at New Lanark 1800–c.1812

At New Lanark Owen quickly initiated changes, some of which he describes in the Second Essay. As in Manchester he placed much emphasis on environmental improvements such as street cleansing, better domestic hygiene, sanitation and water supply. Those designed to enhance efficiency and productivity included new rules and regulations about factory discipline and in 1803–4 installing new machinery. By 1806, and partly on the grounds of cost, he was abandoning the system of pauper apprentices (
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4.4 Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society and Board of Health

In the meantime Owen joined the town's social and intellectual elite, which like its politics was largely dominated by Dissenters. They were prominent in the Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society which Owen joined in 1793. There he associated with some significant reformers, heard papers on a wide range of intellectual, industrial and social topics, and himself presented papers dealing with such issues, including one on education.

The society was founded in 1781, the co-founders b
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6.2.1 Magnesia alba

After four years with Cullen in Glasgow, Black transferred to Edinburgh to complete his medical studies. He then needed to select a topic for his MD dissertation, one which would involve chemistry, be of topical interest, and also touch upon a medical question. He decided to study the nature of causticity, the corrosive character of alkaline substances, such as quicklime (calcium oxide). He wrote to his father in December 1752 that he had chosen this topic because of a controversy between two
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5.3 Hutton's geology: ‘No vestige of a beginning – no prospect of an end’

Geologists are engaged on the business of reconstructing the earth's past and determining the agents of geological change. The only documentary evidence of the earth's origins and ancient past, and of the agents that had caused change, available to Hutton was the book of Genesis, and he had sceptically put it aside, along with miracles. But what if the processes that are presently observable were to be taken as the key to the past? How far might geological enquiry go with the assumptio
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5.2 Background to Theory of the Earth

The two volumes of Theory of the Earth embody a startlingly original conception of the processes which shape the earth's surface, and they contain some vivid observations, drawn from Hutton's travels. However, they are poorly organised, repetitive and sometimes obscure. In a most helpful survey of Hutton's work, from which this section draws liberally, Jean Jones quotes from a wonderfully direct letter that a saddlesore Hutton wrote while on a field-trip in Wales: ‘Lord pity the arse
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3.1 Clubs and societies

The milieu was urban. It was not a business of isolated individuals working in country estates, or of secluded academics, cloistered within unworldly universities. The scene was convivial, social. The focus was Edinburgh, although Glasgow and Aberdeen were active too. Cities were small. Even the capital was intimate enough for its intelligentsia to be able to meet regularly and casually. ‘Here I stand, at what is called the Cross of Edinburgh’, wrote an excited visitor, ‘and within a fe
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4.1 The functions of kente

In Section 4 you will learn about the many uses of kente and adinkra.

Activity 12

Once you’ve watched the video, make a few notes on what you learnt about the functions of kente.


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3.3 Training to weave kente

Activity 9

Once you’ve watched the video, make a few notes on how the kente weavers train.


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3.2 The people who make adinkra

Activity 8

Once you’ve watched the video, make a few notes on what you learnt about the people who make adinkra.


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3.1 The people who make kente

In Section 3 you will learn more about the people who make kente and adinkra.

Activity 7

Once you’ve watched the video, make a few notes on what you learnt about the people who make kente.

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2.6 Questions

Now that you’ve been introduced to kente and adinkra, you might like to think about the questions in the activity below. The purpose of these questions is to encourage you to think about the broader issues and themes mentioned in Section 2. Later on you will have more information to go on, but it is worth noting what you can now and generating some first thoughts in relation to these questions.

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1 The meanings and values of textiles in Ghana

This unit looks at three kinds of textile used and marketed in Kumasi and its surrounding towns in Ghana – the hand-made textiles of kente and adinkra and industrially produced waxed cottons – in order to consider meanings and values assigned to them.

The unit revolves around a series of video clips originally produced for the course A216 Art and its histories. The Course Team filmed at the market in Kumasi as well as at Bonwire, which is a centre for kente
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2.1 Introducing Classical studies

It's time to get a little closer to our topic: the Classical world. We will start off with an activity in the format used throughout the course A219 Exploring the Classical World, from which this unit is derived.

Although some of what is noted in the attached video footage is only dealt with in detail within the original course, viewing it should prepare you for your work in this unit. It should also whet your appetite for further studies in this fascinating area!

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