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1.1.6 Multiple operations

Sometimes you may wish to perform several operations in one step (for example: 35 / 10−3).

When you enter a number of operations one after the other, before clicking the '=key', the Windows calculator will evaluate the combination of operations in a particular order. This corresponds to the order used for any calculation that involves several arithmetic operations. Multiplication and division are evaluated first, then addition and subtraction.

In the example given above, this wo
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1.1.4 Simple arithmetic operations

To perform a simple arithmetic calculation:

  1. Enter the first number in the calculation (for example '123') using one of the following methods:

    • Using your computer keyboard's numeric keypad, which (if you have one) is on the right of your computer keyboard. Check to see whether the Num Lock indicator light is on and if it is not press the NUM LOCK key.

    • Using your computer keyboard's numeric key
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1.1.3 Keeping the calculator running on your Windows desktop

When performing a number of calculations whilst using other programs on your computer, it's convenient to keep the calculator running in the background.

To do this click on the 'Minimise' button of the calculator's window (the leftmost button in the top right corner). When you are ready to start working with the calculator again, click the 'Calculator' button in the Windows taskbar. (The taskbar is usually at the bottom of the screen; it contains the 'Start' button.)


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6.3 Referencing

Once you start using the web for study and research, you'll see how convenient it is to find information that you can use for course notes, essays or reports.

One of the most important of all your study skills is the ability to summarise information from other sources in your own words.

Whenever you make use of any information that has been created by someone else, the author and the source must be clearly identified and acknowledged through the use of proper referencing. Providin
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2.2.1 Reading diagrams: questioning what they say

With each of these diagrams, and with others you are trying to read, there are several questions you can ask.

  • What is the purpose of the diagram, that is, what is it aiming to tell us?

  • How is the information imparted?

  • What assumptions does it make about our ability to understand it?

  • What are we expected to remember?

  • How successful is it in doing all
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5.1.1 Art History

Haggar, R.G. (ed.) (1962) A Dictionary of Art Terms, London, Oldbourne.

Hall, J. (ed.) (1979) Hall's Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art, London, John Murray.


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3.7.2 Language

Your language should be direct rather than fancy. Don't strive for effect. You should always go for short and simple sentences where you can – especially when you are building up a basic essay-writing style. You can play with more elaborate words and grammatical structures later, when you have established a secure basic technique. Don't beat about the bush; pitch straight in to answering the essay question in a direct, purposeful way.


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3.7.1 Technical considerations

Handwriting

Nowadays most people use a word processing package to write essays while some people may use a typewriter. However, if you don't have access to either of these you will need to hand-write your essay. Should this be the case, the ease of reading depends on the quality of your handwriting . It is only fair to your tutor to try to make your writing as legible as possible. This will take time and care. But when you have spent a long time putting an essay together,
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3.6 Taking an objective, analytical stance

One of the things I said an essay should be is ‘objective’. What does that mean? Being objective about something means standing back from it and looking at it coolly. It means focusing your attention on the ‘object’, on what you are discussing, and not on yourself and your own (subjective) feelings about it. Your ideas should be able to survive detailed inspection by other people who are not emotionally committed to them.

An essay should argue by force of reason, not emot
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1.3.1 Reading guide

There is a lot to think about in this course, particularly if you work carefully through all the examples and activities, which are mainly in section 2. I suggest you take the course in five stages:

  1. Up to the end of section 2.1

  2. Section 2.2

  3. Section 2.3

  4. Sections 2.4 and 2.5

  5. Section 2.6

  6. Sections 3 and 4.

Alternatively, simply stop reading closely when you feel you h
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1.3 Developing your essay-writing ability

To develop your skill in writing essays you need to address two basic questions.

  • What does a good essay look like?

  • How do you set about producing one?

We will look at the first of these questions in this chapter and the second in the next.


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1.1 Why write?

Of all aspects of studying, writing is probably the most challenging. That is because when you write down an account of your ideas for other people to read you have to explain yourself particularly carefully. You can't make the mental leaps you do when you are in conversation with others or thinking about something for yourself. To make your meaning clear, using only words on a page, you have to work out exactly what you think about the subject. You come to understand it for yourself i
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • discuss why writing is so important

  • understand and use critically the main criteria of good essay-writing

  • be aware of the basic technical and stylistic considerations involved in writing.


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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this supplement:

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3.3 Maps and the modern world

Maps play a fundamental role in the functioning of modern Western societies. They are important as legal documents in both the public and private spheres: your proof of the boundaries of your property as well as the location of international borders. Maps are important in military campaigns, territorial disputes, explorations for mineral resources. Maps may be a source of conflict and competing claims to land and water. In some cases the conflicts are also cross-cultural. Western-style corpor
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3.2 Maps and the circuit of knowledge

Activity 3

The circuit of knowledge starts with a question or questions. For example, look at Figure 1 and Map 3, A and B. Figure 1 shows how the circuit of knowledge can be used to investigate a question, using Map
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2.2 Mental maps

One of the maps mentioned in the description of my journey to London is the idea of the ‘mental map’. This concerns the notion that we all carry maps in our heads. When asked for directions to a place, our reply is based on a mental map which may be quite close to a ‘real’ map; or may be quite impressionistic and have more to do with our feelings and senses. Have you ever been misled by directions which told you to turn, say, second left, only to discover that the person who gave the
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • identify some of the important characteristics of maps in relation to their value to social science

  • recognise and give examples of how maps can influence our “view” of the world

  • describe the relationship between data and space as represented on a map.


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Exploring the relationship between anxiety and depression
This free advanced level course, Exploring the relationship between anxiety and depression, serves as an introduction to masters level study in neurosciences and mental health. Focusing on anxiety and depression, you will consider key issues concerning diagnosis, causes and interventions, exploring how these conditions relate to each other. You will also explore some of the more contemporary and controversial findings within the field.Author(s): Creator not set

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Panic attacks: what they are and what to do about them
Panic attacks: what they are and what to do about them is a free course that should be helpful to anyone who experiences panic or panic attacks, for their family and friends, and anyone more generally interested in mental health and mental health treatment. The course starts by exploring formal definitions of panic and panic attack. These are then contrasted with personal accounts of the experience of panic. It also presents some of the key understandings of why panic attacks happen, and pr
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